56 terms

Mitosis and Meiosis (And Karyotyping)

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Mitosis
Division of the nucleus of the cell.
Cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm
Chromatid
One of two halves of a chromosome that contain the genetic information for a cell.
(An undivided chromosome)
Chromosomes
A molecule in eukaryotic cells that carries genetic information and consists mainly of two sister chromatids.
Centromere
The area where the sister chromatids are attached together.
Interphase
The longest phase of the cell cycle where the cell caries on normal cell activity and prepares for division.
G1
A part of interphase where proteins and organelles are synthesized. The cell physically grows larger.
S Phase
The part of interphase where DNA is copied.
G2
The phase of Interphase where molecules needed for division are created.
Cell Cycle
The series of events where cells grow, prepare for division, and divide to form two daughter cells.
Reasons for cells to divide
Reproduction
Growth in size
Repair
Homologous Pair
A pair of chromosomes that have the same structure and sequence of genes. They pair up during mitosis.
Prophase
The first phase of mitosis
Prophase
DNA condenses and chromosomes become visible.
Prophase
Nuclear membrane disappears
Prophase
Centrioles begin to move to opposite sides of the cell.
Centriole
An organelle in animal cells that releases spindle fibers to divide the cell.
Spindle Fibers
Fibers that attach to chromosomes at the centromere in order to separate the sister chromatids.
Metaphase
The second phase of mitosis.
Metaphase
Chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell.
Metaphase
Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of chromosomes.
Anaphase
The third phase of mitosis.
Anaphase
Centromeres divide
Anaphase
Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase
The fourth and final phase of mitosis.
Telophase
Chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase
New nuclear membranes begin to form.
Telophase
Cell begins to split in half.
Cleavage Furrow
The space in-between the edges of the two daughter animal cells before they split.
Cell Plate
The beginnings of a new cell wall that forms in plant cells during cytokinesis.
Diploid
Cells that have two sets of chromosomes
Haploid
Cells that have one set of chromosomes. (Half the amount of diploid cells)
Gametes
Haploid cells such as the sperm and egg.
Autosomes
Chromosomes that do not have any influence over gender. (Chromosomes 1-22 in Humans)
Nondisjunction
Chromosomes are separated improperly during anaphase 1 or 2 of meiosis. As a result, the cell will have an abnormal number of chromosomes.
Aneuploidy
An abnormal number of chromosomes on an autosome of a karyotype. (Caused by a nondisjunction)
Meiosis
Making reproductive cells
Products of Meiosis
Four unique haploid daughter cells (Called Gametes or Germ Cells)
Meiosis 1
A reduction phase where cells go from diploid to haploid.
Meiosis 2
A division phase similar to mitosis. (Starts with 2 cells and ends with 4)
Prophase 1
Pairs of homologous chromosomes join together to form a tetrad. Crossing over may occur.
Tetrad
A combination of two homologous chromosomes.
Crossing Over
In prophase 1 of meiosis, Chromosomes form a tetrad and exchange sections resulting in an increased diversity in the gametes.
Metaphase 1
Tetrads line up at the equator of the cell and spindle fibers attach to the centromeres.
Anaphase 1
Tetrad breaks and each sister chromatid moves to the opposite ends of the cell.
Centromeres do not break, and each cell will receive one chromosome from each tetrad.
Telophase 1
The cytoplasm breaks.
The nuclear membrane reforms.
Each cell has one chromosome from each homologous pair.
Prophase 2
Identical to prophase in mitosis.
Metaphase 2
Identical to metaphase in mitosis.
Anaphase 2
Identical to anaphase in mitosis.
Telophase 2
Identical to telophase in mitosis.
Spermatogenesis
Production of sperm.
Occurs in testes.
Two divisions produces 4 sperm.
Sperm
Male reproductive cell/ germ cell.
Oogenesis
Production of Eggs
Occurs in ovaries
Two divisions result in 1 egg and 3 polar bodies that die.
Egg
Female reproductive cell/ germ cell.
Polar Bodies
Products of oogenesis that die due to uneven cytoplasm division.
Somatic Cells
Body cells.