Mitosis and Meiosis (And Karyotyping)
Terms in this set (56)
Division of the nucleus of the cell.
Division of the cytoplasm
One of two halves of a chromosome that contain the genetic information for a cell.
(An undivided chromosome)
A molecule in eukaryotic cells that carries genetic information and consists mainly of two sister chromatids.
The area where the sister chromatids are attached together.
The longest phase of the cell cycle where the cell caries on normal cell activity and prepares for division.
A part of interphase where proteins and organelles are synthesized. The cell physically grows larger.
The part of interphase where DNA is copied.
The phase of Interphase where molecules needed for division are created.
The series of events where cells grow, prepare for division, and divide to form two daughter cells.
Reasons for cells to divide
Growth in size
A pair of chromosomes that have the same structure and sequence of genes. They pair up during mitosis.
The first phase of mitosis
DNA condenses and chromosomes become visible.
Nuclear membrane disappears
Centrioles begin to move to opposite sides of the cell.
An organelle in animal cells that releases spindle fibers to divide the cell.
Fibers that attach to chromosomes at the centromere in order to separate the sister chromatids.
The second phase of mitosis.
Chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell.
Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of chromosomes.
The third phase of mitosis.
Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell.
The fourth and final phase of mitosis.
Chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell.
New nuclear membranes begin to form.
Cell begins to split in half.
The space in-between the edges of the two daughter animal cells before they split.
The beginnings of a new cell wall that forms in plant cells during cytokinesis.
Cells that have two sets of chromosomes
Cells that have one set of chromosomes. (Half the amount of diploid cells)
Haploid cells such as the sperm and egg.
Chromosomes that do not have any influence over gender. (Chromosomes 1-22 in Humans)
Chromosomes are separated improperly during anaphase 1 or 2 of meiosis. As a result, the cell will have an abnormal number of chromosomes.
An abnormal number of chromosomes on an autosome of a karyotype. (Caused by a nondisjunction)
Making reproductive cells
Products of Meiosis
Four unique haploid daughter cells (Called Gametes or Germ Cells)
A reduction phase where cells go from diploid to haploid.
A division phase similar to mitosis. (Starts with 2 cells and ends with 4)
Pairs of homologous chromosomes join together to form a tetrad. Crossing over may occur.
A combination of two homologous chromosomes.
In prophase 1 of meiosis, Chromosomes form a tetrad and exchange sections resulting in an increased diversity in the gametes.
Tetrads line up at the equator of the cell and spindle fibers attach to the centromeres.
Tetrad breaks and each sister chromatid moves to the opposite ends of the cell.
Centromeres do not break, and each cell will receive one chromosome from each tetrad.
The cytoplasm breaks.
The nuclear membrane reforms.
Each cell has one chromosome from each homologous pair.
Identical to prophase in mitosis.
Identical to metaphase in mitosis.
Identical to anaphase in mitosis.
Identical to telophase in mitosis.
Production of sperm.
Occurs in testes.
Two divisions produces 4 sperm.
Male reproductive cell/ germ cell.
Production of Eggs
Occurs in ovaries
Two divisions result in 1 egg and 3 polar bodies that die.
Female reproductive cell/ germ cell.
Products of oogenesis that die due to uneven cytoplasm division.