26 terms

APHG- 7A

STUDY
PLAY
Borchet's Urban Transportation Epochs
Def: The idea that a city's size and character is heavily affected by the modes of transportation of any given era.
-Horse & wagon epoch
-Regional railroad epoch
-National railroad epoch
-Automobile & airplane epoch
Sig: We could use infrastructure planning to affect the city.
CBD (central business district)
The "downtown" where businesses (services) have out bid manufacturers and residents.
It costs more but business have access to a larger market and can benefit from agglomeration
Central-Place Theory (Christaller)
A theory that explains the number and size of settlements in an urban hierarchy based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas (hexagonal shapes)
Smaller towns will perform lower-order functions (bread) while large cities will perform higher-order functions (banking)
Edge City
Cities that popped up around the beltway to serve the suburbs (Initially just basic services but eventually manufacturing and office parks)
Often leads to lateral commuting (along the beltway) or even counter commuting (from the inner city)
Ex: Burbank & Century City
Galactic City
Refers to the sprawled out city where the majority of the people and the jobs lie in the periphery rather than the CBD. (Think Periphery Model)
It includes the urban, suburban & exurban areas
Market Area
The area where the consumers of an enterprise are located.
Market areas for low-order goods will be small (low range), high-order markets will be large (large range).
Mega Cities
Very large cities often with primacy & centrality (though are not necessarily world cities). The term ofted refers to large LDC cities.
Bangkok, Cairo & Mexico City
Megalopolis
When large cities join together or overlap (AKA conurbation)
Ex: Northeast corridor (D.C. to Boston), Great Lakes (Chicago to Pittsburgh) & West Coast (San Francisco to San Diego)
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
It includes an urbanized area, its county and any adjacent counties with high interactivity (at least 50% of residents work in urban area)
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana MSA
Primate City
Non rank-size rule country where the largest city is more than twice as large as the second-ranking city (e.g. France & Argentina)
It often occurs in small countries or those with a short history of urbanization, an export orientation/recent colonial connection or a recent border change.
Rank-Size Rule
The second largest city is ½ as large as the first and the third largest city is 1/3 as large as the first, and so on (e.g. the US).
These states do not have a primate city.
Suburbanization
The movement of people from the inner rings of the city to the less dense, more affluent outer rings.
It was encouraged by the highway system, which made it possible for commuting.
Sprawl
The tendency for American cities to grow outward (suburbs and exurbs)
Urban sprawl has led to the decline of arable land and auto traffic
Urban Hierarchy
1. World Cities (NYC & London)
2. Command and Control Centers: regional centers, HQ of large TNCs (Boston & Phoenix)
3. Specialized Producer-Service Centers: city offers a more narrow array of services (e.g. Detroit's auto)
4. Dependent Centers: relatively low skilled services & are dependent on the health of the world cities (Las Vegas, Buffalo & San Diego)
World City
Integrated into the world economy as the center of the flow of info & capital
First tier: NY, London & Tokyo
Second tier: LA, Brussels, Paris, Singapore & Sao Paulo, etc.
Third tier: Miami, San Francisco, Milan, Mumbai, Mexico City, etc.
Boomburgs
Def: Suburban communities that have popped up rapidly over the past few decades.
Sig: They have the numbers to be ities among themselves but lack the core associated with large cities.
Centrality
When the political, economic & cultural functions of the city are disproportionate to their population
Ex. Bangkok makes up only 12% of the Thai population, but it makes up 75% of its manufacturing
Counterurbanization
Migration from large metropolitan areas to smaller metropolitan areas (safer, cheaper housing, better schools)
It often leads to more traffic & a declining tax base for the city)
More common in the core due to greater communication & transportation infrastructure (N.A. & Europe)
Entrepôt
A port city that serves as an intermediary or a hub for goods shipped between cities.
Singapore
Hinterlands
Urban geography: The area outside of the city that a central place serves in terms of services (its market area). It's the urban center's zone of influence.
Agro geography: the outer rings of Von Thünen's model that produce for the city
Food Deserts
Def: regions within the cities that lack fresh produce and healthy foods (but have plenty of fast food outlets and processed foods).
Sig: Critics argue that food deserts lead to obesity and health problems among the urban poor
Greenfield Sites
Def: Land that has yet to be developed.
Ex: The greenfields are at the periphery of the city so developing these sites leads to urban sprawl. Critics argue that new development should take place within the older core by "infilling" or developing on former industrial sites (brownfields).
Threshold & Range
1) Threshold -- the minimum market (number of people) needed to bring a firm or city selling goods and services into existence and to keep it in business
2) Range -- the average maximum distance people will travel to purchase goods and services
* Used with Christaller's central- place theory
Uptowns
Def: Residential areas of the city that are away from downtowns.
Ex: suburbs (though industry and commerce have moved to the suburbs over the past few decades too).
Urban Growth Rate
The change in urbanization levels
The periphery is currently experiencing high urban growth rates, while the core's growth has stabilized
Urbanization
Increase in the number of people living in the cities
- The periphery has the largest urban settlements (8 of top 10)
Increase in the percentage of people living in the cities
- The core has the highest percentage of urban residence