28 terms

APHG-7B

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Brownfields
Def: Vacant sites that were previously occupied by industry and consequently are polluted or not easily converted to commercial or residential uses.
Sig: These sites make it more difficult to develop the core through "infilling."
Concentric zone model (Burgess)
CBD: business services
Zone of Transition: manufacturing & low cost housing
Zone of Independent Workers' Homes: modest, working class housing
Zone of Better Residences: spacious middle class housing
Commuters' Zone: spacious suburban housing
Filtering
The process where a neighborhood's value decreases, allowing lower income residence to move in and eventually out (invasion & succession).
Large, formerly expensive houses are subdivided and rented out. The houses are not kept up and eventually abandoned.
Gentrification
Reverse filtering where higher income people move into lower value neighborhoods (often by young professionals without kids).
The new money attracts shops & renewal (and displacement of low income residents).
Green Belts
Government mandated green outer ring of a city that cannot be developed to prevent urban sprawl.
Common in Europe (e.g. London)
Informal Sector
Economic activities that are not known about & taxed by the government. Provides a smaller tax base for infrastructure.
Common in the LDC
Infrastructure
Fundamental prerequisites for industry & trade (Transportation, communications, labor, financial, etc.)
Sig: colonial infrastructure focused on extraction and export of raw materials (est. dependency)
Mixed-use Development
Def: Multi-story buildings that serve as residential and commercial spaces. Usually the street level floor is reserved for commerce while the floors above are residential.
Sig: This will allow for greater density and less urban sprawl.
Multiple Nuclei Model (Harris & Ullman)
Multiple nodes emerge that attract different types of people & services
A university node will attract coffee shops, pizzarias, & young people
AKA, urban realms model
New Urbanism
Attempt by urban planners to stop sprawl and return to urban-like living (AKA smart growth).
A community will include offices, shops & mixes residential communities. It encourages pedestrian traffic.
Peripheral model (Harris)
N.A. cities have sprawled out due to our desire for homeownership, safe neighborhoods & good schools. Nodes/edge cities emerge in the beltway.
Sector Model (Hoyt)
Due to transportation or environmental factors, or by chance, different parts of the inner rings will develop unique qualities. As the city builds farther out, the peculiarities will remain.
Ex: Wealthier housing will be built as an extension of the already wealthy neighborhood, creating a sector that stretches from the original CBD to the outer ring
Smart Growth
Def: Growth that focuses on greater density over urban sprawl. It includes mixed-use buildings & public transportation, etc..
Ex: Park La Brea & Playa Vista (higher density housing with walkable amenities (local restaurants, libraries, parks, etc).
Squatter Settlements
Outer rings of LDC cities made up of informal housing (often without sewage & electricity).
(AKA Favelas & Barriadas)
Urban Realm Model
The urban realm refers to the city that has outgrown its reliance on the CBD.
Census data
Def: data collected from the census bureau every 10 years (and lesser studies in between).
Sig: They allow us to know who lives where and observe trends.
Commuter Zone
The outer ring or the suburbs. Land is cheaper (for the amount of space). It's considered safer and the schools are seen as better (except for that well regarded urban school, Hamilton).
Residents must commute to downtown or laterally for jobs
Density Gradient
Cities density used to decay from the CBD (inner ring was the most dense, outer ring the least dense)
Today, most US cities are seeing an increase in density in the outer rings and a decrease in the inner rings.
Disamenity Zones
Def: regions within the city where residents avoid.
Ex: railroad yards, factories, flood plains.
Female-Headed Household
Single mom with kids
Female-headed households are often in low income parts of the city (cannot afford the money & time to commute from the outer ring)
Field Studies
Def: Studies that use direct observation over quantitative aggregation.
Sig: Often these studies are more limited in scope but provide a richer understanding.
In-filling
The attempt by urban planners to use up the low density places within the city rather than sprawling outward (convert abandoned factories into lofts)
An attempt to reverse the problems associated with urban sprawl
Lateral Commuting
Moving along well established periphery (or commuter zone) rather than commuting to the CBD
Postindustrial city
Cities of the core that have moved away from manufacturing and towards the high-value service sector
Often associated with middle class, high levels of education & liberalism
Ex: San Francisco, Boston & Seattle
Redlining
The practice by banks of not investing in certain neighborhoods believed to be in decline (no home loans). The practice would promote decline.
Often the neighborhoods were majority black.
Urban Morphology (or Form)
Study of how cities are structured.
Latin American city (right)
Islamic City
European City
North American City: burgess, sector, multiple nuclei, peripheral, etc.
Zone in Transition
The ring next to the CBD. It has industrial and residential uses and is often in decline.
Inner ring of the concentric zone mode.
Zones of Abandonment (Blight)
Def: regions of the city that have declined so much (often through the filtering out process) that they have been thoroughly abandoned by owners and renters.
Sig: Taken over by squatters making it that much harder to redevelop.