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38 terms

Bones, muscles, joints and movement

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Ulna
Lower arm bone, little finger side
Radius
Lower arm bone, thumb side
Synovial Joint
Allows wide range of movement, contains synovial fluid
Joint Capsule
Connective tissue surrounding joint
Synovial Membrane
Lines inside of capsule and secretes fluid
Articular Cartilage
Covers end of bones to prevent friction
Bursae
Sacs of synovial fluid
Ball & Socket Joint
Allows widest range of movement, shoulders and hips only
Hinge Joint
Allows flexion and extension e.g. elbow
Pivot Joint
Allows rotation e.g. between 1st 2 vertebral bones
Flexion
Bending at knee or elbow, raising arm and leg at shoulder and hip along sagittal plane
Extension
Straightening at knee or elbow, lowering arm and leg at shoulder and hip along sagittal plane
Plantarflexion
Pointing foot at hinge joint of ankle
Dorsiflexion
Bring toes towards shin at hinge joint of ankle
Horizontal adduction
Moving arm at ball and socket joint of shoulder along transverse plane towards midline of body
Horizontal abduction
Moving arm at ball and socket joint of shoulder along transverse plane away from midline of body
Anterior deltoid
Front section of shoulder muscle causing horizontal adduction of upper arm
Posterior deltoid
Back section of shoulder muscle causing horizontal abduction of upper arm
Biceps brachii agonist concentric
Upper arm muscle causing elbow flexion e.g. racquet stroke after contact
Triceps brachii agonist concentric
Causes elbow extension e.g. throwing, preparation for racquet stroke, upwards phase of press-up
Triceps brachii agonist eccentric
Controls elbow flexion due to gravity e.g. downwards phase of press-up
Posterior deltoid agonist concentric
Causes horizontal abduction at shoulder e.g. preparation for forehand racquet stroke
Anterior deltoid agonist concentric
upward phase of wide arm press up, forehand racquet stroke contact and follow through
Anterior deltoid agonist eccentric
Downward phase of wide arm press-up
Gastrocnemius agonist concentric
Calf muscle causing plantarflexion at ankle e.g. in drive phase of running and jumping
Tibialis Anterior agonist concentric
Muscle in front of shin causing dorsiflexion at ankle e.g. when landing in recovery phase of running and on landing a jump
Quadriceps agonist concentric
Cause knee extension e.g. when jumping, kicking and in drive phase of running
Quadriceps agonist eccentric
Controls knee flexion due to gravity e.g. downward phase of squat, preparation and on landing a jump
Hamstrings agonist concentric
Cause knee flexion e.g. recovery phase of running, preparation to kick
Iliopsoas agonist concentric
Causes hip flexion e.g. kicking, recovery phase of running
Gluteus Maximus agonist concentric
Causes hip extension e.g. drive phase of running, preparation for kicking
Gluteus Maximus agonist eccentric
Controls hip flexion due to gravity e.g. downward phase of squats
Bones articulating at elbow
Humerus, Ulna, Radius
Bones articulating at shoulder
Humerus, Clavicle, Scapula
Bones articulating at hip
Femur, Pelvis
Bones articulating at knee
Femur, Tibia, Patella
Bones articulating at ankle
Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals
Synovial fluid
Lubricates and reduces friction between articulating bones