44 terms

Musculoskeletal system

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Ulna
Lower arm bone, little finger side
Radius
Lower arm bone, thumb side
Synovial Joint
Allows wide range of movement, contains synovial fluid
Synovial fluid
Lubricates and reduces friction between articulating bones
Articular Cartilage
Covers end of bones to prevent friction
Bursae
Sacs of synovial fluid
Ball & Socket Joint
Allows widest range of movement, shoulders and hips only
Hinge Joint
Allows flexion and extension e.g. elbow
Pivot Joint
Allows rotation e.g. between 1st 2 vertebral bones
Flexion
Decreasing joint angle along sagittal plane, around transverse axis
Extension
Increasing joint angle, sagittal plane, transverse axis
Hyperextension
Increasing the joint angle past 180 degrees, sagittal plane, transverse axis
Plantarflexion
Pointing foot using hinge joint of ankle, sagittal plane, transverse axis
Dorsiflexion
Bring toes towards shin using hinge joint of ankle, sagittal plane, transverse axis
Horizontal adduction
Moving humerus/femur along transverse plane, around longitudinal axis, towards midline of body
Horizontal abduction
Moving humerus/femur along transverse plane, around longitudinal axis, away from midline of body
Adduction
Moving humerus/femur along frontal plane, around sagittal axis, towards midline of body
Abduction
Moving humerus/femur along frontal plane, around sagittal axis, away from midline of body
Agonist
Main muscle causing or controlling a movement
Antagonist
Muscle working in opposition to the agonist, relaxes to allow co-ordinated movement
Concentric contraction
Muscle shortens under tension to produce movement at a joint
Eccentric contraction
Muscle lengthens under tension to produce movement at a joint
Isometric contraction
Muscle generates force but no movement occurs at the joint
Biceps brachii agonist concentric
Causes elbow flexion e.g. racquet stroke after contact
Biceps brachii agonist eccentric
Controls elbow extension e.g. downwards phase of a bicep curl
Triceps brachii agonist concentric
Causes elbow extension e.g. throwing, preparation for racquet stroke, upwards phase of press-up
Triceps brachii agonist eccentric
Controls elbow flexion due to gravity e.g. downwards phase of press-up
Latissimus dorsi agonist concentric
Causes horizontal abduction at shoulder e.g. preparation for forehand racquet stroke
Pectoralis major
Causes horizontal adduction at shoulder e.g. preparation for forehand racquet stroke
Anterior deltoid agonist concentric
Causes shoulder flexion, e.g. raising arms in preparation for high jump
Anterior deltoid agonist eccentric
Controls shoulder extension e.g. cushioning a catch into the body.
Gastrocnemius agonist concentric
Causes plantarflexion at ankle e.g. in drive phase of running and jumping
Tibialis Anterior agonist concentric
Causes dorsiflexion at ankle e.g. 'set' position of a sprint start
Quadriceps agonist concentric
Cause knee extension e.g. when jumping, kicking and in drive phase of running
Quadriceps agonist eccentric
Controls knee flexion due to gravity e.g. downward phase of squat, preparation and on landing a jump
Hamstrings agonist concentric
Cause knee flexion e.g. recovery phase of running, preparation to kick
Iliopsoas agonist concentric
Causes hip flexion e.g. kicking, recovery phase of running
Gluteus Maximus agonist concentric
Causes hip extension e.g. drive phase of running, preparation for kicking
Gluteus Maximus agonist eccentric
Controls hip flexion due to gravity e.g. downward phase of squats
Bones articulating at elbow
Humerus, Radius & Ulna
Bones articulating at shoulder
Humerus & Scapula
Bones articulating at hip
Femur & Pelvis
Bones articulating at knee
Femur & Tibia
Bones articulating at ankle
Tibia, Fibula & Talus