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Anthropology Test 1
Terms in this set (106)
What are the subfields of anthropology?
Archaeology, Biological (physical), Cultural, Linguistic
What is culture?
learned, socially acquired traditions of thought and behavior found in human societies
What is biology?
chemical and mechanical processes associated with life
Attributes of Scientific Study
openly defined, transparent, repeatable, based on concrete units of measure
Elements of Scientific Study
theory, hypothesis, method, conclusions
What is science, as a philosophy?
Science is a way of viewing existence where conclusions (interpretations) must follow logically from relevant and "appropriately obtained" data
What is science, as a method?
A logical system that results in the intellectual ordering of phenomena
What did Karl Popper notice about science?
Pointed out that science cannot prove anything -it can only disprove
What were Aristotle's contributions to biology?
were among the first to posit serious explanations regarding the relationships between living creatures
What is his "Great Chain of Being?"
This scheme ranked organisms according to their supposed complexity, intelligence, and importance
Contribution of Linnaeus
Contributions of Comte de Buffon
proposed evolution, found dynamic relations between organisms and their environments
Contributions of Erasmus Darwin
proposed one of the first structured theories of evolution
Contributions of Hutton
proposed operations of nature are steady
Contributions of Cuvier
Contributions of Lamarck
"lamarcksim"- evolution occurs during the lifetime of an individual organism; no species have gone extinct
Contributions of Lyell
promoted uniformatarianism; proposed earth must be older than biblical dates
Contributions of Malthus
organisms can reproduce exponentially
Contributions of Charles Darwin
believed species changed over time; all organisms can be traced back to an ancestor
Contributions of Wallace
Independently came up with the idea of natural selection which prompted Darwin to publish his book
Know Linnaeus' basic classification scheme of all organisms
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
What is binomial nomenclature?
in most scientific (and some popular) literature, organisms are referred to simply by there genus and species name
Plato and essentialist thought
Essentialist believe that each organism has a fundamental, unchanging "essence" at its core; Variation within populations was seen as deviations from the perfect essence
What is "populational thinking?"
there is no unchanging essence; Species are defined primarily by reproductive isolation
significance of the Galapagos Islands for Darwin's ideas.
When visiting these young volcanic islands Darwin noted slight differences between thespecies on various islands, especially amongst finches and tortoises.
what were the "Basic Ideas" behind Darwin's ideas on Natural Selection?
Believed that species changed thru time; Given enough time species could change radically; Natural conditions could produce all of the world's organisms; All organisms can ultimately trace their ancestry to a single ancestor; Understood that organisms within a species were all slightly different
what are genetics?
Study of the basic structure and processes of DNA
what are genomics?
Study of DNA, including associated molecules, chemicals, and evolutionary patterns.
What is a genotype?
The genetic makeup of an individual organism.
what is a phenotype?
An observable or measurable feature of an organism
What were "Darwin's dilemmas?"
he did not know how variations in species were created; He also did not understand the mechanics as to how traits passed from one generation to the next; He did know that offspring cannot simply be a blending of all their parent's traits or variation would decrease with each generation
What are Mendel's postulates?
1. Hereditary characteristics (traits) are controlled by particulate unit factors that exist in pairs in universal (all) organisms. 2. When an individual has two different unit factors for a characteristic only one is expressed and is said to be dominant. 3. During the formation of gametes (sex cells), the paired unit factors segregate randomly, so that each sex cell receives one or the other with equal likelihood. 4. During gamete formation, segregating pairs of units assort independently of each other. This is now known as Mendel's Law of Segregation.
What is Mendel's Law of Segregation?
During gamete formation, segregating pairs of units assort independently of each other
explain Mendel's contributions to what we today call genetics.
He worked the basics of what today we call genetics solely thru observation of phenotypes thru generations
what were the limitations of Mendel's work?
Most traits in complex organisms are controlled by multiple genes, thus making the study of genotype-to-phenotype expression much more complicated that he envisioned; Genes do not always segregate independently; In some cases both traits (alleles) can be expressed - this is called co-dominance; Mendel's work does not explain how new genetic variation is created
What's a mutation?
is an "error" (a chemical substitution) that occurs in the replication of Genetic material (DNA)
phenotypic traits that are governed by more than one gene
One gene effecting multiple phenotypic traits.
What is meant by gene flow
movement of genes between populations
mating between closely related individuals
Random changes in the gene frequency of a population that have nothing to do with its genetic health
A portion of a population becoming isolated from the whole, carrying only part of the original groups' genetic compliment.
Large temporary reduction in the size of a species
What is sexual selection and who proposed this idea?
Refers to the differential reproductive success of members of one sex of any species; The sex with the more limited reproductive potential should be fought over by the sex with the greatest reproductive potential; Charles Darwin
What is Sexual Dimorphism?
Differences in size, shape, color of species of the sexes in the same species.
What is a species?
An interbreeding group of organisms that are isolated reproductively thru anatomy, ecology, behavior, or geography from all other groups.
What is Anagenesis?
Evolution of a species (or a trait) over time.
Geographic separation of species creating new species.
Part of a population entering a new adjacent ecological niche and evolving into a new species to meet this environment.
Speciation occurring in part of a populational within a single environment (seems to occur only at the microscopic level (bacteria and viruses).
What is Gradualism?
Speciation occurring thru small (incremental) changes over long periods of time.
Long periods of evolutionary stasis in species, followed by periods of rapid change(usually coinciding with rapid environmental change).
What is the "biological species concept?"
"... groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups." Developed by Ernst Mayr
What other criteria can be used to define a species?
Geneticists have proposed new criteria for defining species based purely on genetic relationships
What is parallel evolution?
Sometimes organisms that are not closely related can develop similarly because they are adapting to similar environmental conditions
Who was Wilhelm Johannsen?
First coined the term "gene."
What is a cell?
a microscopic entity in which genetic material and other structures are separated from the environment by a semi-permeable membrane.
What are the basic cell types?
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Single-celled organism without a nucleus. Examples: bacteria and blue-green algae
Cells where genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell by a structure known as a nucleus.
Know the basic features of cells.
Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, Organelles
What are somatic cells?
Cells that are not Gametes
Cells that are directly involved in reproduction
What are Mitochondria?
Capsule-shaped organelles where metabolic reactions take place resulting in the production of energy-rich molecule (ATP - adenosine triphosphate) that fuels the cell.
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
A complex organelle in the cytoplasm that has a "folded sheet" appearance; It provides increased surface area for various metabolic reactions to take place
Rough endoplasmic reticulum?
An area of the ER with "knobs" called ribosomes.
They serve as sites where protein synthesis takes place
What are the functions of DNA?
•Self replication.•Creates proteins (other than itself).•Coordinates the activities of proteins to direct the development of the phenotype
Know the structure of DNA.
The DNA molecule is a double helix (it looks a bit like a "twisted ladder"). The three major units are nucleotide base, sugars, and phosphates
What are codons?
These three-base sequences are called codons, which form a single amino acid. There are 64 possible
What are "termination" codons?
Three codons (often called "termination"or"stop"codons") do not code for an amino acid but instead signal that a protein chains has come to an end.
What are "initiation" codons?
Another serves as an "initiation" or "start"codon," which signals the beginning of a polypeptide chain (this codon also represents the amino acid methionine)
The sections that are expressed are called "exons."
The intervening ("spliced out") sequences are called "introns" are not expressed in a protein.
Occurs in the nucleus; The information is been "transcribed" from the language of DNA to RNA."
Occurs in the cytoplasm; The mRNA then separates (upon which the DNA molecule closes) and carries the information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where protein synthesis (translation) takes place.
What is are Chromosomes?
tightly coiled DNA; Most organisms have two copies of each chromosomes in each cell
the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.
Gametes have only half the number of chromosomes
The total number of chromosomes in a cell
What's an allele?
Somatic cells also have two copies of each gene
What does heterozygous and homozygous mean in regards to genetics?
When an person has the same allele at each at each locus (gene) on each chromosomes he or she is called homozygous for that gene; If there are different alleles at each locus of each chromosomes a person is called heterozygous for that gene.
the basis of cell proliferation; occurs during the growth of an organism, during healing, or whenever new cells need to be created
Occurs in the testes (males) and ovaries (females); Leads to the formation of gametes (sex cells - sperm in males eggs in females), which have a haploid number of chromosomes
What is "crossing over?"
What's a zygote?
When sperm and egg unite
What is a "point mutation"?
a mutation affecting only one or very few nucleotides in a gene sequence.
A "frameshift mutation"?
is a genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three
What are structural and regulatory genes?
Structural genes. Any of the genes coding for the production of a specific RNA, structural protein, or enzyme not involved in regulation. Regulatory gene is a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes
The division of humans into groups based on biological characteristics; the human equivalent of the subspecies concept developed by biologists mainly to classify non-human life forms.
Local populations that share part of the geographic range of a species and can be differentiated from other subspecies (and perhaps the species as a whole) by one or more phenotypic traits
Be able to explain why humans have become largely hairless.
Eventually humans would become largely hairless, in part in response to heat dissipation needs to help with sweat
Be able to explain the adaptive process that has led to humans to have different skin colors and hair colors and textures
What are folates?
The loss of vitamin B folates can create problems for humans in many areas, such as reproduction.
How can genetic drift (including founder(s) affect) affect human appearance (evolution)?
Founder populations would not have carried the full genetic compliment of the groups off of which they had split. Human appearance (skin, hair color, body type, etc.) is largely the result of adaptations to local climatic conditions and genetic drift, diet, and age.
How have cultural attributes affected human evolution?
Be familiar with Bergmann's and Allen's Rules."
Bergmann's Rule - Large (more stout and round) body sizesshould evolve in colder climates to conserve body heat. Allen's Rule - In warmer climates the limbs are longer relative to body size (this helps to dissipate heat).
What is "Ethnicity?"
It refers mostly to culture, while acknowledging biological differences between groups
What is hypoxia?
a condition where the body cannot take in enough oxygen to function properly
Sickle-cell trait occurs thru the expression of a recessive gene,leading to sickle-cell anemia; It changes the shape of red blood cells in manner that makes it difficult to impossible them to circulate thru the body.
Most adult humans today are lactose intolerant to some degree.
What is a karyotype?
the characteristics of the chromosomes for an individual organism or a species, such as number, size and type
What's a patriline?
DNA whose inheritance can be traced from father to son via the Y chromosome
What are haplotypes
a group of alleles that tend to be inherited as a unit due to their closely spaced loci on a single chromosome
a large set of haplotypes, such as the Y chromosome on mitochondrial DNA, that may be used to define a population
What is a deme?
a local population of organisms that have similar genes, interbreed, and produce offspring
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