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AP Pysch Unit 9: Psychological Disorders
Terms in this set (56)
The study of people who suffer from psychological disorders.
For a behavior to be defined using this term, it must be maladaptive, disturbing to others, unusual, and irrational.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
The guide manual that contains only symptoms of currently considered psychological disorders. Psychologist use this manual to diagnose their patients with mental disorders. This manual has been revised overtime to remove homosexuality and to restructure the symptoms of autism.
Believe the cause of psychological disorders is one's unconscious conflicts due to trauma during psychosexual stages.
Believe the cause of psychological disorders is the result of individual's history with reinforcement.
Believe the cause of psychological disorders is maladaptive ways of thinking.
Believe that the cause of psychological disorders is rooted in an individual's feeling, self-esteem, and self-concept.
Believe that the cause of psychological disorders is caused by social issues like racism, sexism, and poverty.
Believe that the cause of psychological disorders is a hormone or neurotransmitter imbalance, genetics, and brain structure.
Disorder that involves an activation of the autonomic nervous system, automatic arousal, and nervousness.
An anxiety disorder that involves an intense and unwarranted fear. Contact with this fear results in anxiety. Some examples include claustrophobia, social anxiety disorder, and arachnophobia.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which individual's experiences constant, low-level anxiety.
Ex: An individual is anxious about what they will make for dinner, when they will go to sleep, what they will wear in the morning, etc.
An anxiety disorder that involves acute episodes of intense anxiety without apparent provocation.
Ex: An individual experiences an intense anxiety attack before taking a math test or driving a car.
Psychoanalytic Cause of Anxiety Disorder
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is a result of conflicts among the desires of the id, ego, and superego.
Ex: A student experiences this disorder because their superego tells them to continue studying, while their id tells them to stop studying, and their ego tells them to study a little more. All of this conflicting ideas cause the student to feel more stressed and nervous.
Behaviorist Cause of Anxiety Disorder
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is a result of learned associations with classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or cognitive learning. They believe that this disorder is caused by associating certain stimuli with negative feelings.
Ex: A student has associated taking a math test with negative feelings, causing them to feel extreme nervousness whenever they have to take a math test.
Cognitive Cause of Anxiety Disorder
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is a result of a dysfunctional way of thinking. They would classify an individual with this disorder as having unhealthy and irrational thought patterns.
Ex: A student's interpretation of a math test as being stressful and more important than it actually is produces their disorder.
Somatic Symptom Disorder
A psychological disorder that involves physical complaints without any physiological cause.
Ex: An individual has a seizure, but no problems can be found in the brain.
A somatic symptom disorder that involves reporting severe physical problems (blindness, paralysis, seizures) without any identifiable biological reason.
A psychological disorder that involves a disruption in consciousness.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
A dissociative disorder that involves multiple fragmented personalities in a single individual. The personalities vary in age and sex, can be opposite of one another, and are often paired with a history of sexual abuse or childhood trauma. Personalities can often arise from a specific period of time in a person's life.
Ex: A woman studied abroad in France in her twenties and became fluent in French. When she became diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder, one of her personalities only spoke french as it was representative of the time in her life when she was consumed in the French culture and language.
A dissociative disorder that involves amnesia with a psychological cause. This type of amnesia lacks a physiological reason like brain injury. This type of amnesia also last typically under a week.
Mood (affective) Disorder
A psychological disorder that involves experiencing extreme or inappropriate emotions.
Mood Depressive Disorder
A mood disorder that involves unhappiness without clear reason. The unhappiness must last at least two weeks beyond reason to be considered this disorder. Symptoms of this disorder include loss of appetite, fatigue, changing sleep patterns, and lack of interest in usual activities.
Psychoanalytic Cause of Somatic Symptom Disorder
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is caused by physical manifestations of unresolved unconscious conflicts.
Ex: A man suffers from this disorder because as a child his father always punched him in the eye for being bad, so now he claims that he can't see even though his eyes are fine.
Behaviorist Cause of Somatic Symptom Disorder
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is caused by reinforcements of behavior.
Ex: A teenage girl keeps experiencing seizures without any physical reason because she enjoys of the positive reinforcement of the attention she gets from her family afterward.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
A mood disorder that involves depression during certain times of the year. This disorder typically occurs in the winter.
A mood disorder that involves fluctuations between mania and depression. People with this disorder typically engage in risky behavior.
A psychological disorder that involves delusions and hallucinations. This is the most severe and debilitating psychological disorder, and it typically arises during young adulthood. This disorder is commonly associated with psychosis.
Psychoanalytic Cause of Dissociative Disorder
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is caused by an extremely traumatic event heavily repressed, which causes a split in consciousness.
Ex: A woman was sexually assaulted as a girl, so her consciousness developed multiple personalities so that only the personality of the little girl would have to deal with the sexual assault.
Behaviorist Cause of Dissociative Disorder
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is the result of the behavior of not thinking about a trauma being reinforced.
Ex: A man that was stabbed by his brother completely forgets his brother because he is reinforced by removing an aversive memory.
Cognitive Cause of Mood Disorder
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is the result of rumination and unreasonably negative ideas about self, world, and future.
Ex: A person suffering from this disorder may continuously think about a negative experience for a prolonged amount of time, and feel very negative and unsubstantiated ideas about themselves.
A symptom of schizophrenia classified as beliefs without any basis in reality.
Delusions of Persecution
Feeling as though you are being persecuted by an agency, group, or individual without any basis in reality.
Ex: Reading an article in the news about the FBI's investigations on Russia and believing that the FBI is surveilling you.
Delusions of Grandeur
Feeling as though you hold a superior position above others without any basis in reality.
Ex: Becoming convinced that you are God.
Perceptions without sensory stimulation.
Ex: seeing, hearing, or feeling people or figures that don't exist.
A type of odd language usage associated with schizophrenia. Individuals make up words.
A type of odd language usage associated with schizophrenia. Individuals string together nonsense rhyming words.
A type of odd language usage associated with schizophrenia. Individuals link together random words or phrases.
A symptom of schizophrenia that involves inappropriate emotional responses to stimulus.
Ex: An individual laughs at the death of a close family member.
A symptom of schizophrenia that involves no emotional response.
Ex: An individual does not react at all to the death of a close family member.
A symptom of schizophrenia that involves psychological motor immobility. An example of this symptom is waxy flexibility, during which a person with schizophrenia will allow their body to be moved into a position and will hold their body in that pose for a prolonged period of time.
Biological Causes of Schizophrenia
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is caused by a dopamine imbalance, as high level of dopamine has been associated with this disorder. This perspective also believes that enlarged brain ventricles, brain asymmetries, and genetic predispositions can cause this disorder.
Ex: Those with Parkinson's disease are administered medication that increases the dopamine levels in patients, which has been know to cause this disorder. Also, antipsychotic drugs that lower dopamine levels have been proven to decrease this disorder.
Cognitive-Behavioral Causes of Schizophrenia
This psychological perspective would believe that this disorder is caused by double blinds, or the contradictory messages an individual is given from the environment that causes a distorted way of thinking to develop due to the impossibility of rationally resolving the environmental experience.
A psychological disorder that involves maladaptive ways of behaving and inflexible and enduring impaired social functioning.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder that involves a lack of empathy and little regard for other people's feelings. Those with this disorder also believe that the world is hostile so they must care for themselves only. Those with this disorder can be classified as sociopaths.
Dependent Personality Disorder
A personality disorder that involves relying too much on the attention and help of others.
Paranoid Personality Disorder
A personality disorder that involves feeling persecuted without reason, or feeling suspiciousness and mistrust in others.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
A personality disorder that involves seeing oneself as the center of the universe.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
A personality disorder that involves overly dramatic and emotional behavior. Individuals with this disorder exhibit excessive attention seeking behaviors
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
A personality disorder that involves concern with order, control, perfection, and details. Individuals with this disorder lack flexibility and openness to change.
Anxiety inducing persistent, unwanted thoughts.
The need to engage in particular actions. This reduces the anxiety produced by the obsession.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Disorder that occurs in some individuals after a traumatic event. This disorder includes flashbacks or nightmares of memories. These memories can cause anxiety.
Sexual attraction to object, person, activity that is not usually seen as sexual.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
A neurodevelopmental disorder in which an individual deviates from typical social development and seeks out less emotional and social contact. Individuals with this disorder also can be hypersensitive to sensory stimulation, exhibit intense interest in non-interesting objects, and engage in simple, repetitive behaviors.
A neurodevelopmental disorder in which individuals have difficulty paying attention or staying still. This disorder is more common in boys and is often overdiagnosed.
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