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Chinese Calligraphy Midterm (Zhou Laoshi)
Terms in this set (70)
The characters used for stamps are usually ________ or ________.
Chinese painters traditionally love to draw bamboo, ___________, orchid, _________. Those two plants have some traits in common. What are they? Please name two.
They can grow in difficult weather, they are straight and tall, in difficult times they still grow strongly and are evergreen. Also flexible
What are the five elements that Chinese philosophers believe comprise the whole world?
WATER, METAL, EARTH, FIRE, WOOD
What are the "four gems of study" Please write down the names.
Brush, Ink, Paper, Ink Stone
Who, according to Chinese legend, invented Chinese picture writing but is believed by modern scholars to be only a compiler of the ideograms existing at that time?
Tsang Chieh, the official recorder of the court of Huang ti (2367 B.C.?) was the inventor of Chinese picture writing, but modern scholars consider him a compiler of the ideograms which were in existence at that time.
(Page 7 in Book)
Chaun (Zhuan) means __________. Greater Chuan is a general name for the calligraphy style between _________ and Lesser Chuan.
Engraved or Incised
Shell and Bone
True or False?
Since the shell and bone were very hard, most characters were engraved or incised on them directly.
Chinese writing was in vertical columns, from right to left and reading top to bottom. Please explain the reason briefly.
Chinese calligraphy was originally written on bamboo, meaning it was written vertically
When Wester Chou became Eastern Chou, as a result, the style of Chinese writing started to vary. What is the main cause of the change?
The main cause of the style of Chinese writing was due to Political conflict and war between the states.
Chu Chien (Zhu Jian) is the writing on bamboo strips or tablets. Please use one example to explain why bamboo culture is so important to Chinese people. (app 100 words)
Bamboo is important because it bends but never breaks. Artists painted bamboo trees to describe their emotions (we may bend but we may never break)
Bamboo is the symbol of virtue
When was China unified by the first emperor? What style of written language did he ask his prime minister to regulate and unify?
221 B.C. Emperor Ch'in-Shih-Huang-Ti. His prime minister unified the Lesser Chuan
The Li is different from Chuan. Unlike the rectangular, vertical shape of Lesser Chuan, the Li is ________________.
Horizontal (triangular and hooked).
When was the "Civil examination system" established? Did this stimulate the art of calligraphy? How? Please explain briefly.
Han Dynasty. Calligraphy was one of the six arts taught at Confucian schools.
True or False?
Chan Tsao (Zhang Cao) means "Writing hurriedly done" or "speedy script." Therefore, it is a shorthand style used only for ordinary writing.
False; used also in official documents
Tsao (Cao) can be described as a script _______; Hsing (Xing) as ____________; and Kai as ___________________.
3. Standing still
When was paper invented? And what change in calligraphy because of it?
Liberated the artist from the confinement of the narrow writing surface of the bamboo. A higher competency and sophistication of technique could be attained. Responsible for the great release and outpouring of artistic expression.
What does "Kai" mean? How does its writing look?
Kai means standard, precise or neat. It has a beauty of orderly design and an aura of tranquility.
Who is the "first prophet" and who is the "second prophet" of Chinese calligraphy?
Master Wang- First Prophet
Yen Ch'en-Ch'ing - Second prophet
Wang Hsi-Chih (Wang Xi-zhi) is the master of masters in Chinese calligraphy history, according to our author. Why does the author set such high value on him? Explain based on the author's comments
His writing is effortless, characters are well spaced and seem comfortable in their arrangement; each word, even each stroke is very natural and shows no hesitation or laboriousness
Is Yan Ch'en-Ch'ing (Yan Zhengqing) a Confucian official? Why or why not?
How did he die? Please explain briefly.
Yes, he passed the civil examination and became part of the world of bureaucracy. However, he angered the emperor and was sent to be a province governor during the Tang Dynasty. Because of his refusal to bend over to corrupt officials, he was strangled to death by a jealous Grand Consilor
Why are both Su Tung-P'o (Su Dongpo) and Hwang T'ing-Chian (Huang Tingjian) considered rebels? And what are the differences in style between the two? Please explain briefly
Su Dongpo performed brilliantly in his official examinations and was rewarded with the first of the many official positions he occupied during his long and distinguished career. Under the Song emperor Shenzong and an accomplished poet himself, banished Su to Huangzhou, Hubei province, in 1079, because of Su's opposition to some of Wang's radical reform measures. Huang Tingjian was a more scholarly and introverted person than Su Dongpo, and his approach to creativity was more mystical. His wild cursive script was derived from the 8th-century Tang-dynasty priest Huaisu. Huang Tingjian's unconventional approach to poetry was influential; rather than adopting the flowery, clever, and extravagant style typical of the late Tang and early Song period
Who is one of the leading painters of the Northern Sung period and the originator of Pointillism?
(Page 40 in Book)
True or False?
In Chinese history, most of the emperors did not care about calligraphy
True or False?
It is said the skill of Chinese brushwork is best demonstrated in the Tsao (Cao) style. But because it has never been taught in schools, as it is too abbreviated for everyone to read, it is not popular with professional calligraphy artists.
FALSE, it is the most popular
Explain the term "one- breath" simply?
When did the brushwork become an art form in its own right?
From the Han Period and on, brushwork became an art form in its own right
Chang Hsu (Zhang Xu) is believed the best in Mad Grass style during the Tang Dynasty. Discuss briefly the relationship between sword dance, wine, and calligraphy in his case.
He watched a performance, a female sword dancer and claimed he experienced a deep inspiration, from which his skill with wielding his brush improved. The rising and falling of rhythm in his calligraphy compares to the movement of dancing. The brush to him is like the sword in General Pei's hand, both arousing emotional sensation. Chang usually performed calligraphy after drinking wine.
True or False?
Chinese culture respects deities and duty very much because of the influence of Confucianism
What is the difference between the Dao of Confucianism and the Dao of Daoism?
The Chinese word dao means a way or a path. Confucians used the term dao to speak of the way human beings ought to behave in society. I
Daoism: In other words, dao, for them, was an ethical or moral way.
From the point of view of Daoism, however, the Confucian concept of dao was too limited.
Confucianism believes that sincerity could be achieved only through ___________ and ______________.
According to Confucianism, art has a dual purpose. The purposes are:
1) Develop men of culture and high moral standard
2) Illustrate the need for order and harmony in life
What is Ch'an (Zen)'s special characteristic?
Emphasis on sudden enlightenment, obtained through meditation
What are the aesthetic components of calligraphy?
Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism
From the old belief that the universe moved in a circular orbit and the shape of the earth was an immense square, Chinese developed the idea of the round and the square even in their concept of ethics. Please explain briefly what the round and the square are about.
To be round and smooth when dealing with people (Being agreeable) while being square with oneself (Strict and self discipline)
Lines define form, suggest _________, connote surface, and indicate _________.
True or False?
The dots in Chinese calligraphy create the "one-breath" effect because their "tails" indicate direction of movement in the structure of the character.
What is title of the celebrated work written by the famous critic Hsieh Ho (Xie He) (479-501)?
True or False?
The effect of depth in Chinese painting is created by the element of perspective.
How is the Chinese concept of space-consciousness shown in Chinese painting? Please describe briefly.
The spatial structure in Chinese painting is formed by the modeling of light and shadow, not by the conforming to the sculptural spirit. In addition, the element of perspective is not needed in a painting or calligraphy because it exist in the mind's eye..
The composition is the most fundamental element in Chinese calligraphy and it encompasses six essential principles. They are:
1) host-and guests concept
2) depth and perspective
4) Yin and Yang, dark and light contrast
6) Density and Looseness
True or False?
As Chinese love nature, in Chinese art, the principle of Yin and Yang is confined to natural phenomena
A good composition contains good balance. What is good balance in Chinese Calligraphy?
Ch'I Yuen means "rhythmic vitality," or "spirit resonance," or "vibration of vitality," or "harmony with the spirit," which is said to be the most important method of the six methods in Chinese calligraphy. Some Chinese scholars say this method could not be learned; it is innate. But some scholars say it can be attained by effort. With which opinion do you agree? Please give your reason.
Ch'i Yuen rests on the correct use of brushwork as well as ink and color. This can be methodically explained to, and learned by a student. (From the Book Page 76)
Took 600 years for someone to challenge that this is only an innate ability.
Ch'I Yuen was recreated through the reproduction of the painting Bottle Gourd Vine by Wu Ch'ang-Shuo (1842-1927). This shows that Ch'I Yuen can be learned with careful mastery.
True or False?
A sheng calligraphy has a straightforwardly serious and strong expression with raw edges; whereas a style of shu is fluid: the stroke is smooth, swaying, not angular; it is well done and graceful in appearance. Therefore the Shu work is the paramount in art.
Using Page 82-85 in Book
Chiao means "Dexterous" and "clever" while Chuo literally means "awkwardness." However, according to the aesthetic standard of Chinese art, Chuo is rare quality in art, precious and difficult to attain. Why? Please answer.
Chuo is a derogatory term applied to something which is ugly. This quality is difficult to find in paintings because of the economy of strokes used in such works. Chuo often reflects the child-like spontaniety to be found in paintings of Rouault and Changall. Chuo may be found in gay and witty paintings as well as in serious and profound pieces.
(Page 86 in book)
Through what does an artist attain the literary flavor in Wen Jen School art?
Wen-Jen artists must possess these traits:
1) Nobility of character
2) A thorough education
4) Profound, inspiring thoughts
(Page 91 in Book)
Why has Chinese considered black ink (Mo) the best color? How did Westerners in the past think about it?
It offers infinite graduations of color tone. They thought when colors are used , the colors should be considered "guest," and the black ink should be "host" with the domain of color.
A famous Chinese writer Lin Yu Tang (1896-1976) described Chinese calligraphy in this way: Chinese calligraphy is nothing but _________________.
Dancing on paper
The pine and cypress are two of the favorite subjects for Chinese artist. Use Confucius' words to explain why the trees like these would be the symbols for Chinese culture.
Trees - ancient and eternal, beautiful and powerful, serene and mysterious...
This evergreen tree symbolize longevity because it can endure severe weather.
bamboo is resilient and less susceptible to breakage. It can bend but not break. To the Chinese, this characteristic corresponds with the ideals of a Confucian scholar - strong, yet modest and flexible.
plum symbolize hope and courage because it bravely stands against the danger of winter.
cypress symbolizes plentiful because it shares the same pronunciation (bai) as the word "hundred".
Chi is the force which ________________.
Harmonizes Yin and Yang
Chinese artists never tried to conquer nature. The principle was to live with nature harmoniously. Please examine this statement in relation to their ideas about Nature.
The function of form in Chinese painting is to reproduce the natural shape and create suggestion.
Daoism says that nature "just flows"
The Ch'an School of art has three emphases on art. They are:
1) Black is the predominant color used
2) Extremely simply strokes are employed;
3) The expression of the work, whether it be a landscape or a still life, lies beyond the mere rendering of the form (less decorative).
Tao or Dao (/daʊ/, DOW; from Chinese: 道; pinyin: Dào, [tâu]
Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road', 'choose', 'key' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science'  .
Within the context of traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, the Tao is the intuitive knowing of "life" that cannot be grasped full-heartedly as just a concept but is known nonetheless through actual living experience of one's everyday being.
The Chinese word jia - 家 - jiā
(family in Chinese)
The Chinese word tian - 天 - tiān
(sky in Chinese)
地 (de), most often used with adverbial phrases
Ren (Chinese: 仁) is the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic. Ren is exemplified by a normal adult's protective feelings for children. It is considered the outward expression of Confucian ideals.
The Chinese word jin - 金 - jīn
(gold in Chinese)
The Chinese word nan - 南 - nán
(south in Chinese)
Cao (Running Style)
Greater or Bigger Zhuan
Hsing Chu (walking style)
Kai (formal style)
Precise and Neat
Oracle style (shell and bone)
The earliest Chinese Characters: Oracle) words (on tortoise bone or animal bone