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NURS 355 Chapter 26
Terms in this set (68)
What test is used to screen for carbohydrate malabsorption?
The anticipated pH of a stool specimen is 7.0. A stool pH of less than 5.0 is indicative of carbohydrate malabsorption. The bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates in the colon produces short-chain fatty acids, which lower the stool pH. Urine ketones detect the presence of ketones in the urine, which indicates the use of alternative sources of energy to glucose. The C urea breath test measures the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled. It is used to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) detects the presence of antigens and antibodies. It is not useful for disorders of metabolism.
A toddler's mother calls the nurse because she thinks her son has swallowed a button type of battery. He has no signs of respiratory distress. The nurse's response should be based on which premise?
The location needs to be confirmed by radiographic examination.
Button batteries can cause severe damage if lodged in the esophagus. If both poles of the battery come in contact with the wall of the esophagus, acid burns, necrosis, and perforation can occur. If the battery is in the stomach, it will most likely be passed without incident. Surgery is not indicated. The battery is metallic and is readily seen on radiologic examination.
The mother of a child with cognitive impairment calls the nurse because her son has been gagging and drooling all morning. The nurse suspects foreign body ingestion. What physiologic occurrence is most likely responsible for the presenting signs?
The object may be lodged in the esophagus
Gagging and drooling may be signs of esophageal obstruction. The child is unable to swallow saliva, which contributes to the drooling. Signs of gastrointestinal (GI) perforation include chest or abdominal pain and evidence of bleeding in the GI tract. If the object was aspirated, the child would most likely have coughing, choking, inability to speak, or difficulty breathing. If the object was embedded in the stomach wall, it would not result in symptoms of gagging and drooling.
What is a high-fiber food that the nurse should recommend for a child with chronic constipation?
Popcorn is a high-fiber food. Refined rice is not a significant source of fiber. Unrefined brown rice is a fiber source. Fruit juices are not a significant source of fiber. Raw fruits, especially those with skins and seeds, other than ripe bananas, have high fiber.
A 2-year-old child has a chronic history of constipation and is brought to the clinic for evaluation. What should the therapeutic plan initially include?
The first step in the treatment of chronic constipation is to empty the bowel and allow the distended rectum to return to normal size. Dietary modification is an important part of the treatment. Increased fiber and fluids should be gradually added to the child's diet. A 2-year-old child is too young for structured toilet training. For an older child, a regular schedule for toileting should be established. Behavior modification is part of the overall treatment plan. The child practices releasing the anal sphincter and recognizing cues for defecation.
What statement best describes Hirschsprung disease?
The colon has an aganglionic segment.
Mechanical obstruction in the colon results from a lack of innervation. In most cases, the aganglionic segment includes the rectum and some portion of the distal colon. There is decreased evacuation of the large intestine secondary to the aganglionic segment. Liquid stool may ooze around the blockage. The obstruction does not affect meconium production. The infant may not be able to pass the meconium stool. There is decreased movement in the colon.
What procedure is most appropriate for assessment of an abdominal circumference related to a bowel obstruction?
Marking the point of measurement with a pen
Pen marks on either side of the tape measure allow the nurse to measure the same spot on the child's abdomen at each assessment. The child most likely will be kept NPO (nothing by mouth) if a bowel obstruction is present. If the child is being fed, the assessment should be done before feedings. The symphysis pubis is too low. Usually the largest part of the abdomen is at the umbilicus. Leaving the tape measure in place reduces the trauma to the child.
A 3-year-old child with Hirschsprung disease is hospitalized for surgery. A temporary colostomy will be necessary. How should the nurse prepare this child?
It is essential because it will be an adjustment.
The child's age dictates the type and extent of psychologic preparation. When a colostomy is performed, it is necessary to prepare the child who is at least preschool age by telling him or her about the procedure and what to expect in concrete terms, with the use of visual aids. The preschooler is not yet concerned with body image.
A child has a nasogastric (NG) tube after surgery for Hirschsprung disease. What is the purpose of the NG tube?
Prevent abdominal distention
The NG tube is placed to suction out gastrointestinal secretions and prevent abdominal distention. The NG tube would not affect infection. Electrolyte content of the NG drainage can be monitored. Without the NG tube, there would be no drainage. After the NG tube is placed, it is important to maintain an accurate record of intake and output. This is not the reason for placement of the tube.
A parent of an infant with gastroesophageal reflux asks how to decrease the number and total volume of emesis. What recommendation should the nurse include in teaching this parent?
Thicken feedings and enlarge the nipple hole.
Thickened feedings decrease the child's crying and increase the caloric density of the feeding. Although it does not decrease the pH, the number and volume of emesis are reduced. Surgical therapy is reserved for children who have failed to respond to medical therapy or who have an anatomic abnormality. The prone position is not recommended because of the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Smaller, more frequent feedings are more effective than less frequent, larger volumes of formula.
After surgery yesterday for gastroesophageal reflux, the nurse finds that the infant has somehow removed the nasogastric (NG) tube. What nursing action is most appropriate to perform at this time?
Notify the practitioner
When surgery is performed on the upper gastrointestinal tract, usually the surgical team replaces the NG tube because of potential injury to the operative site. The decision to replace the tube or leave it out is made by the surgical team. Replacing the tube is also usually done by the practitioner because of the surgical site.
An adolescent with irritable bowel syndrome comes to see the school nurse. What information should the nurse share with the adolescent?
Stress management may be helpful
Irritable bowel syndrome is believed to involve motor, autonomic, and psychologic factors. Stress management, environmental modification, and psychosocial intervention may reduce stress and gastrointestinal symptoms. A high-fiber diet with psyllium supplement is often beneficial. Milk products can exacerbate bowel problems caused by lactose intolerance. Antispasmodic drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, and simethicone are beneficial for some individuals. Proton pump inhibitors have no effect.
What clinical manifestation should be the most suggestive of acute appendicitis?
Colicky, cramping, abdominal pain around the umbilicus
Pain is the cardinal feature. It is initially generalized, usually periumbilical. The pain becomes constant and may shift to the right lower quadrant. Rebound tenderness is not a reliable sign and is extremely painful to the child. Bright or dark red rectal bleeding and abdominal pain that is relieved by eating are not signs of acute appendicitis.
When caring for a child with probable appendicitis, the nurse should be alert to recognize which sign or symptom as a manifestation of perforation?
Sudden relief from pain
Signs of peritonitis, in addition to fever, include sudden relief from pain after perforation. Anorexia is already a clinical manifestation of appendicitis. Tachycardia, not bradycardia, is a manifestation of peritonitis. Abdominal distention usually increases in addition to an increase in pain (usually diffuse and accompanied by rigid guarding of the abdomen).
The nurse is caring for a child admitted with acute abdominal pain and possible appendicitis. What intervention is appropriate to relieve the abdominal discomfort during the evaluation?
Allow the child to assume a position of comfort
The child should be allowed to take a position of comfort, usually with the legs flexed. The Trendelenburg position will not help with the discomfort. If appendicitis is a possibility, administering laxative or enemas or applying heat to the area is dangerous. Such measures stimulate bowel motility and increase the risk of perforation.
What statement is most descriptive of Meckel diverticulum?
Intestinal bleeding may be mild or profuse
Bloody stools are often a presenting sign of Meckel diverticulum. It is associated with mild to profuse intestinal bleeding. Meckel diverticulum is the most common congenital malformation of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in 1% to 4% of the general population. It is more common in males than in females. The standard therapy is surgical removal of the diverticulum.
One of the major differences in clinical presentation between Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is that UC is more likely to cause which clinical manifestation?
Rectal bleeding is more common in UC than CD. Pain, perianal lesions, and growth retardation are common manifestations of CD.
Nutritional management of the child with Crohn disease includes a diet that has which component?
The child with Crohn disease often has growth failure. Nutritional support is planned to reduce ongoing losses and provide adequate energy and protein for healing. Fiber is mechanically hard to digest. Foods containing seeds may contribute to obstruction. A high-calorie diet is necessary to minimize growth failure. Herbal supplements should not be used unless discussed with the practitioner. Vitamin supplementation with folic acid, iron, and multivitamins is recommended.
What information should the nurse include when teaching an adolescent with Crohn disease (CD)?
How to cope with stress and adjust to chronic illness
CD is a chronic illness with a variable course and many potential complications. Guidance about living with chronic illness is essential for adolescents. Stress management techniques can help with exacerbations and possible limitations caused by the illness. At this time, there is no cure for CD. Surgical intervention may be indicated for complications that cannot be controlled by medical and nutritional therapy. Nutritional guidance is an essential part of management. Constipation is not usually an issue with CD. CD is not infectious, so transmission is not a concern. A low-fiber diet is indicated.
A child with pyloric stenosis is having excessive vomiting. The nurse should assess for what potential complication?
Infants with excessive vomiting are prone to metabolic alkalosis from the loss of hydrogen ions. Potassium and chloride ions are lost with vomiting. Metabolic alkalosis, not acidosis, is likely.
What term describes invagination of one segment of bowel within another?
Intussusception occurs when a proximal section of the bowel telescopes into a more distal segment, pulling the mesentery with it. The mesentery is compressed and angled, resulting in lymphatic and venous obstruction. Atresia is the absence or closure of a natural opening in the body. Stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of the diameter of a bodily passage or orifice. Herniation is the protrusion of an organ or part through connective tissue or through a wall of the cavity in which it is normally enclosed.
A school-age child with celiac disease asks for guidance about snacks that will not exacerbate the disease. What snack should the nurse suggest?
Celiac disease symptoms result from ingestion of gluten. Corn and rice do not contain gluten. Popcorn or corn chips will not exacerbate the intestinal symptoms. Pizza and pretzels are usually made from wheat flour that contains gluten. Also, in the early stages of celiac disease, the child may be lactose intolerant. Oatmeal contains gluten.
An infant with short bowel syndrome is receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The practitioner has added continuous enteral feedings through a gastrostomy tube. The nurse recognizes this as important for which reason?
Stimulate adaptation of the small intestine
Long-term survival without TPN depends on the small intestine's ability to increase its absorptive capacity. Continuous enteral feedings facilitate the adaptation. TPN is indicated until the child is able to receive all nutrition via the enteral route. Before this is accomplished, the small intestine must adapt and increase in cell number and cell mass per villus column. TPN is formulated to meet the infant's nutritional needs. Continuous enteral feedings through a gastrostomy tube is a positive sign, but the infant's ability to tolerate increasing amounts of enteral nutrition is only one factor that determines readiness for discharge.
Melena, the passage of black, tarry stools, suggests bleeding from which source?
Upper GI tract
Melena is denatured blood from the upper GI tract or bleeding from the right colon. Blood from the perianal or rectal area, hemorrhoids, or lower GI tract would be bright red.
A child with acute gastrointestinal bleeding is admitted to the hospital. The nurse observes which sign or symptom as an early manifestation of shock?
Restlessness is an indication of impending shock in a child. Capillary refill is slowed in shock. The child will feel cool. The blood pressure initially remains within the normal range and then declines.
What signs or symptoms are most commonly associated with the prodromal phase of acute viral hepatitis?
Anorexia and malaise
The signs and symptoms most common in the prodromal phase are anorexia, malaise, lethargy, and easy fatigability. Bruising would not be an issue unless liver damage has occurred. Jaundice is a late sign and often does not occur in children. Dark urine and pale stools would occur during the onset of jaundice (icteric phase) if it occurs.
What immunization is recommended for all newborns?
Hepatitis B vaccine
Universal vaccination for hepatitis B is recommended for all newborns. Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for infants starting at 12 months. No vaccine is currently available for hepatitis C.
The nurse is discussing home care with a mother whose 6-year-old child has hepatitis A. What information should the nurse include?
Teach infection control measures to family members.
Hand washing is the single most effective measure in preventing and controlling hepatitis. Hepatitis A can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Family members must be taught preventive measures. Rest and quiet activities are essential and adjusted to the child's condition, but bed rest is not necessary. The child is not infectious 1 week after the onset of jaundice and may return to school as activity level allows.
What therapeutic intervention provides the best chance of survival for a child with cirrhosis?
The only successful treatment for end-stage liver disease and liver failure may be liver transplantation, which has improved the prognosis for many children with cirrhosis. Liver transplantation reflects the failure of other medical and surgical measures to prevent or treat cirrhosis. Nutritional support is necessary for the child with cirrhosis, but it does not stop the progression of the disease. Blood components are indicated when the liver can no longer produce clotting factors. It is supportive therapy, not curative. Corticosteroids are not used in end-stage liver disease.
The nurse observes that a newborn is having problems after birth. What should indicate a tracheoesophageal fistula?
Excessive frothy saliva
Excessive frothy saliva is indicative of a tracheoesophageal fistula. The child is unable to swallow the secretions, so there are excessive amounts of saliva in the mouth. Jitteriness is associated with several disorders, including electrolyte imbalances. Meconium ileus is associated with cystic fibrosis. Increased need for sleep is not associated with a tracheoesophageal fistula.
The nurse is caring for a neonate with a suspected tracheoesophageal fistula. What should nursing care include?
Raise the patient's head and give nothing by mouth
When a newborn is suspected of having a tracheoesophageal fistula, the most desirable position is supine with the head elevated on an inclined plane of at least 30 degrees. It is imperative that any source of aspiration be removed at once; oral feedings are withheld. The oral pharynx should be kept clear of secretions by oral suctioning. This is to prevent the cyanosis that is usually the result of laryngospasm caused by overflow of saliva into the larynx.
The nurse is caring for an infant who had surgical repair of a tracheoesophageal fistula 24 hours ago. Gastrostomy feedings have not been started. What do nursing actions related to the gastrostomy tube include?
Leave the tube open to gravity drainage
In the immediate postoperative period, the gastrostomy tube is open to gravity drainage. This usually is continued until the infant is able to tolerate feedings. The tube is unclamped in the postoperative period to allow for the drainage of secretions and air. Gastrostomy tubes are not suctioned on an as-needed basis. They may be connected to low suction to facilitate drainage of secretions. Lowering the tube to a point below the level of the stomach would create too much pressure.
What should preoperative care of a newborn with an anorectal malformation include?
Gastrointestinal decompression is an essential part of nursing care for a newborn with an anorectal malformation. This helps alleviate intraabdominal pressure until surgical intervention. Suctioning is not necessary for an infant with this type of anomaly. Feedings are not indicated until it is determined that the gastrointestinal tract is intact. Supine position with head elevated is indicated for infants with a tracheoesophageal fistula, not anorectal malformations.
A child who has just had definitive repair of a high rectal malformation is to be discharged. What should the nurse address in the discharge preparation of this family?
Changes in stooling patterns to report to the practitioner
The parents are taught to notify the practitioner if any signs of an anal stricture or other complications develop. Constipation is avoided because a firm stool will place strain on the suture line. Daily enemas are contraindicated after surgical repair of a rectal malformation. Fiber and stool softeners are often given to keep stools soft and avoid tension on the suture line. The child needs to recover from the surgical procedure. Then bowel training may begin, depending on the child's developmental and physiologic readiness.
The parents of a newborn with an umbilical hernia ask about treatment options. The nurse's response should be based on which knowledge?
The defect usually resolves spontaneously by 3 to 5 years of age.
The umbilical hernia usually resolves by ages 3 to 5 years of age without intervention. Umbilical hernias rarely become problematic. Incarceration, where the hernia is constricted and cannot be reduced manually, is rare. Umbilical hernias are not associated with a high mortality rate. Taping the abdomen flat does not help heal the hernia; it can cause skin irritation.
The nurse is preparing to care for a newborn with an omphalocele. The nurse should understand that care of the infant should include what intervention?
Covering the intact bowel with a nonadherent dressing to prevent injury
Nursing care of an infant with an omphalocele includes covering the intact bowel with a nonadherent dressing to prevent injury or placing a bowel bag or moist dressings and a plastic drape if the abdominal contents are exposed. The infant is not started on any type of feeding but has a nasogastric tube placed for gastric decompression. Pain management is started after surgery, but surgery is not done immediately after birth. The infant is medically stabilized before different surgical options are considered.
What should the nurse consider when providing support to a family whose infant has just been diagnosed with biliary atresia?
Liver transplantation may be needed eventually
Untreated biliary atresia results in progressive cirrhosis and death usually by 2 years of age. Surgical intervention at 8 weeks of age is associated with somewhat better outcomes. Liver transplantation is also improving outcomes for 10-year survival. Even with surgical intervention, most children require supportive therapy. With early intervention, 10-year survival rates range from 27% to 75%.
A 3-day-old infant presents with abdominal distention, is vomiting, and has not passed any meconium stools. What disease should the nurse suspect?
The clinical manifestations of Hirschsprung disease in a 3-day-old infant include abdominal distention, vomiting, and failure to pass meconium stools. Pyloric stenosis would present with vomiting but not distention or failure to pass meconium stools. Intussusception presents with abdominal cramping and celiac disease presents with malabsorption.
A 6-month-old infant with Hirschsprung disease is scheduled for a temporary colostomy. What should postoperative teaching to the parents include?
Assessing bowel function
In the postoperative period, the nurse involves the parents in the care of the child with a temporary colostomy, allowing them to help with feedings and observe for signs of wound infection or irregular passage of stool (constipation or true incontinence). Some children will require daily anal dilatations in the postoperative period to avoid anastomotic strictures but not stoma dilatations. Physical activities should be encouraged. There is not a risk of prolapse of the rectum in Hirschsprung disease, just strictures.
An infant is born with a gastroschisis. Care preoperatively should include which priority intervention?
Covering the defect with a sterile bowel bag
Initial management of a gastroschisis involves covering the exposed bowel with a transparent plastic bowel bag or loose, moist dressings. The infant cannot be placed prone, and feedings will be withheld until surgery is performed. Electrolyte laboratory values will be monitored but not before covering the defect with a sterile bowel bag.
What is the purpose in using cimetidine (Tagamet) for gastroesophageal reflux?
The medication reduces gastric acid secretion
Pharmacologic therapy may be used to treat infants and children with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Both H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine [Tagamet], ranitidine [Zantac], or famotidine [Pepcid]) and proton pump inhibitors (esomeprazole [Nexium], lansoprazole [Prevacid], omeprazole [Prilosec], pantoprazole [Protonix], and rabeprazole [Aciphex]) reduce gastric hydrochloric acid secretion.
A health care provider prescribes feedings of 1 to 2 oz Pedialyte every 3 hours and to advance to 1/2 strength Similac with iron as tolerated postoperatively for an infant who had a pyloromyotomy. The nurse should decide to advance the feeding if which occurs?
The infant is taking the Pedialyte without vomiting or distention.
After a pyloromyotomy, feedings are usually instituted within 12 to 24 hours, beginning with clear liquids. They are offered in small quantities at frequent intervals. Supervision of feedings is an important part of postoperative care. The feedings are advanced only if the infant is taking the clear liquids without vomiting or distention. Feedings would not be advanced if the infant has not voided, the IV line becomes infiltrated, or the mother states the infant is tolerating the feedings.
The nurse is assisting a child with celiac disease to select foods from a menu. What foods should the nurse suggest?
Corn on the cob with butter
Treatment of celiac disease consists primarily of dietary management. Although a gluten-free diet is prescribed, it is difficult to remove every source of this protein. Some patients are able to tolerate restricted amounts of gluten. Because gluten occurs mainly in the grains of wheat and rye but also in smaller quantities in barley and oats, these foods are eliminated. Corn, rice, and millet are substitute grain foods. Corn on the cob with butter would be gluten free.
An infant with short bowel syndrome will be on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for an extended period of time. What should the nurse monitor the infant for ?
Central venous catheter infection, electrolyte losses, and hyperglycemia
Numerous complications are associated with short bowel syndrome and long-term TPN. Infectious, metabolic, and technical complications can occur. Sepsis can occur after improper care of the catheter. The gastrointestinal tract can also be a source of microbial seeding of the catheter. The nurse should monitor for catheter infection, electrolyte losses, and hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia, weight gain, constipation, or red currant jelly stools are not characteristics of short bowel syndrome with extended TPN.
A child is being admitted to the hospital with acute gastroenteritis. The health care provider prescribes an antiemetic. What antiemetic does the nurse anticipate being prescribed?
Ondansetron reduces the duration of vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis. This would be the expected prescribed antiemetic. Adverse effects with earlier generation antiemetics (e.g., promethazine and metoclopramide) include somnolence, nervousness, irritability, and dystonic reactions and should not be routinely administered to children. For children who are prone to motion sickness, it is often helpful to administer an appropriate dose of dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) before a trip, but it would not be ordered as an antiemetic.
The nurse should instruct parents to administer a daily proton pump inhibitor to their child with gastroesophageal reflux at which time?
30 minutes before breakfast
Proton pump inhibitors are most effective when administered 30 minutes before breakfast so that the peak plasma concentrations occur with mealtime. If they are given twice a day, the second best time for administration is 30 minutes before the evening meal.
An infant had a gastrostomy tube placed for feedings after a Nissen fundoplication and bolus feedings are initiated. Between feedings while the tube is clamped, the infant becomes irritable, and there is evidence of cramping. What action should the nurse implement?
Vent the gastrostomy tube
If bolus feedings are initiated through a gastrostomy after a Nissen fundoplication, the tube may need to remain vented for several days or longer to avoid gastric distention from swallowed air. Edema surrounding the surgical site and a tight gastric wrap may prohibit the infant from expelling air through the esophagus, so burping does not relieve the distention. Some infants benefit from clamping of the tube for increasingly longer intervals until they are able to tolerate continuous clamping between feedings. During this time, if the infant displays increasing irritability and evidence of cramping, some relief may be provided by venting the tube. The next feeding should not be withheld, and calling the health care provider is not necessary.
What intervention is contraindicated in a suspected case of appendicitis?
In any instance in which severe abdominal pain is observed and appendicitis is suspected, the nurse must be aware of the danger of administering laxatives or enemas. Such measures stimulate bowel motility and increase the risk of perforation. The abdomen is palpated after other assessments are made. Antibiotics should be administered, and antipyretics are not contraindicated.
The nurse is caring for a child with Meckel diverticulum. What type of stool does the nurse expect to observe?
In Meckel diverticulum the bleeding is usually painless and may be dramatic and occur as bright red or currant jelly-like stools, or it may occur intermittently and appear as tarry stools. The stools are not clay colored, steatorrhea, or loose with undigested food.
The nurse is evaluating the laboratory results of a stool sample. What is a normal finding?
The laboratory reports a negative guaiac.
The normal stool finding is a negative guaiac. Stool pH should be 7.0 to 7.5. A stool pH <5.0 is suggestive of carbohydrate malabsorption; colonic bacterial fermentation produces short-chain fatty acids, which lower stool pH. There should be no enzymes or reducing substances present in a normal stool sample.
The nurse is teaching a parent of a 6-month-old infant with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) before discharge. What instructions should the nurse include? (Select all that apply.)
Hold the infant in the prone position after a feeding.
Prescribed cimetidine (Tagamet) should be given 30 minutes before feedings.
Discharge instructions for an infant with GER should include the prone position (up on the shoulder or across the lap) after a feeding. Use of the prone position while the infant is sleeping is still controversial. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the supine position to decrease the risk of sudden infant death syndrome even in infants with GER. Prescribed cimetidine or another proton pump inhibitor should be given 30 minutes before the morning and evening feeding so that peak plasma concentrations occur with mealtime. The head of the bed in the crib does not need to be elevated. The mother may continue to breastfeed or express breast milk to add rice cereal if recommended by the health care provider; thickening breast milk or formula with cereal is not recommended by all practitioners. The Nissen fundoplication is only done on infants with GER in severe cases with complications.
The nurse is preparing to admit a 3-year-old child with intussusception. What clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe? (Select all that apply.)
Passage of red, currant jelly-like stools
Tender, distended abdomen
Sudden acute abdominal pain
Intussusception occurs when a proximal segment of the bowel telescopes into a more distal segment, pulling the mesentery with it and leading to obstruction. Clinical manifestations of intussusception include the passage of red, currant jelly-like stools; a tender, distended abdomen; and sudden acute abdominal pain. Absent bowel sounds, anorexia, and hematemesis are clinical manifestations observed in other types of gastrointestinal dysfunction.
The school nurse is teaching a group of adolescents about avoiding contaminated water during a mission trip. What should the nurse include in the teaching? (Select all that apply.)
The best measure during travel to areas where water may be contaminated is to allow children to drink only bottled water and carbonated beverages (from the container through a straw supplied from home). Children should also avoid tap water, ice, unpasteurized dairy products, raw vegetables, unpeeled fruits, meats, and seafood.
The nurse is teaching parents about high-fiber foods that can prevent constipation. What foods should the nurse include in the teaching? (Select all that apply.)
Raisin bran cereal
Lima beans have 13.2 g of fiber in 1 cup, baked beans have 10.4 g of fiber in 1 cup, and raisin bran cereal has 7.3 g of fiber in 1 cup. One orange has only 3.1 g of fiber, and 1 banana has only 3.1 g of fiber, so they are not recommended as high-fiber foods.
The nurse is teaching parents of a child with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease foods that can exacerbate acid reflux. What foods should be included in the teaching session? (Select all that apply.)
Avoidance of certain foods that exacerbate acid reflux (e.g., caffeine, citrus, tomatoes, alcohol, peppermint, spicy or fried foods) can improve mild GER symptoms. Bananas and whole wheat bread will not exacerbate acid reflux.
The nurse is preparing to admit a 6-year-old child with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). What clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe? (Select all that apply.)
Feeling of incomplete evacuation of the bowel
Children with IBS often have alternating diarrhea and constipation, flatulence, bloating or a feeling of abdominal distention, lower abdominal pain, a feeling of urgency when needing to defecate, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation of the bowel.
The nurse is caring for a child with celiac disease. The nurse understands that what may precipitate a celiac crisis? (Select all that apply.)
A celiac crisis can be precipitated by infections, electrolyte depletion, and emotional disturbance. Exercise or fluid overload does not precipitate a crisis.
The nurse is preparing to admit a 6-year-old child with celiac disease. What clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe? (Select all that apply.)
Clinical manifestations of celiac disease include impaired fat absorption (steatorrhea and foul-smelling stools) and impaired nutrient absorption (malnutrition). Anemia, not polycythemia, is a manifestation, and melena stools do not occur.
The nurse is preparing to admit a 10-year-old child with appendicitis. What clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe? (Select all that apply.)
Clinical manifestations of appendicitis include fever, vomiting, and tachycardia. Pallor is seen, not a flushed face, and the bowel sounds are hypoactive or absent, not hyperactive.
The nurse is preparing to admit a 2-month-old child with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. What clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe? (Select all that apply.)
The infant is hungry after vomiting
Clinical manifestations of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis include weight loss, projectile vomiting, and hunger after vomiting. The vomitus is nonbilious, and there is no evidence of pain or discomfort, just chronic hunger.
The nurse is preparing to admit a 6-month-old child with gastroesophageal reflux disease. What clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe? (Select all that apply.)
Failure to thrive
Clinical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease include spitting up, failure to thrive, excessive crying, and respiratory problems. Hematemesis, not bilious vomiting, is a manifestation.
The nurse is preparing to admit a 5-year-old child with hepatitis A. What clinical features of hepatitis A should the nurse recognize? (Select all that apply.)
The onset is rapid
Fever occurs early
Nausea and vomiting are common
Clinical features of hepatitis A include a rapid onset, fever occurring early, and nausea and vomiting. A rash is rare, and the mode of transmission is by the fecal-oral route, rarely by the parenteral route.
The nurse is preparing to admit a 7-year-old child with hepatitis B. What clinical features of hepatitis B should the nurse recognize? (Select all that apply.)
Rash is common
Jaundice is present
The mode of transmission is principally by the parenteral route
Clinical features of hepatitis B include a rash, jaundice, and the mode of transmission principally by the parenteral route. The onset is insidious, not rapid, and a carrier state does exist.
The nurse is preparing to admit a 7-year-old child with Crohn disease. What clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe? (Select all that apply.)
Pain is common
Weight loss is severe
Diarrhea is moderate to severe
Clinical manifestations of Crohn disease include pain, severe weight loss, and moderate to severe diarrhea. Rectal bleeding is rare, but anal and perianal lesions are common.
Indicates ongoing infection or carrier state
Indicates resolving or past infection
Detected only in the liver
Indicates active infection
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