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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (93)
The forerunner of the camera was the?
camera obscura, a dark chamber or room with a hole (later a lens) in one wall, through which images of objects outside the room were projected on the opposite wall.
what Italian scientist and writer described the camera lens?
Giambattista della Porta demonstrated and described in detail the use of a camera obscura with a lens.
His discovery, in combination with the camera obscura, provided the basic technology necessary for photography. It was not until the early 19th century, however, that photography actually came into being?
Johann Heinrich Schulze
The earliest known photography studio anywhere opened in New York City in March 1840 was called?
what was a chemical he was informed would increase the sensitivity of his prepared paper, Talbot discovered that the acid could be used to develop a latent image?
Photography was revolutionized in 1851 by the introduction of the what?
wet collodion process and for making glass negatives
Gelatin plates were about 60 times more sensitive than collodion plates this increased?
The increased speed freed the camera from the tripod, and a great variety of small hand-held cameras became available at relatively low cost, allowing photographers to take instantaneous snapshots.
The first commercially available digital camera was the 1990 Dycam Model 1 (Logitech Fotoman). It used a CCD image sensor, stored pictures digitally, and connected directly to a computer for download was?
Automation. Digital cameras.
Introduced in 1948, the Polaroid Model 95 was the world's first instant-picture camera. Following that, 1965 introduced the Model 20 Swinger, which became a huge success and remains one was?
. Instant cameras
Typical f-stops are f2.8, f-4, f-5.6, f-8, f-11, f-16 and f-22. The larger the number, the smaller the opening.
Increasing the size of the aperture by one f- stop doubles the amount of light that enters the lens.
cameras you will see the term Auto or AE which stands for?
Program Mode is?
lets you change some settings, such as whether the flash will fire or not, and the type of metering the camera will use when taking a picture.
Aperture Priority mode allows what?
photographer to set the size of the aperture, also known as the f-stop, and then have the camera decide what shutter speed will be used to take a correctly exposed image.
Shutter Priority mode is?
allows the photographer to set the shutter speed and then have the camera decide the size of the aperture's opening to take a correctly exposed image.
Sets the camera for minimum depth of field so that the background of the portrait will have a soft and less distracting look.
The reverse of the portrait mode, sets the camera for maximum depth of field so that everything in the picture will be in focus.
This mode is used when taking pictures of small objects.
Used to stop motion when taking pictures of fast-moving objects, such as athletes at sporting events. On some cameras, this mode works in conjunction with the auto-focus mechanism to keep moving subjects in focus.
This mode is used to take pictures of people under low light conditions, such as dawn, evening and night. When the subjects are in the foreground, a slower shutter speed will be used to lighten the background and a fill-in flash will fire to illuminate the foreground objects.
this mode turns the flash off.
Allows you to select the shutter speed and the aperture so that you have control over the amount of light, the amount of motion and the depth of field in your pictures.
Auto Depth of Field?
This setting is used so that the camera's automatic focusing capability evaluates various locations within the field of view and then selects the aperture setting that will provide enough depth of field to keep everything in focus.
Exposure Compensation lets you override the camera's automatic exposure setting, usually in 1/3, 1/2 or 1 f-stop increments, either on the plus side for more exposure, or on the minus side for less exposure.
Many cameras have this capability that lets you maintain the previous exposure value for additional pictures.
Depth of Field?
Depth of field is an important concept in photography and helps determine the focus of foreground and background elements and how they relate to each other. This relationship between items closer to the camera and those farther away can be modified through the effective use of depth of field.
The shutter speed of a camera determines how long of an exposure is made, in other words how long light will travel through the lens to expose the film or a digital camera's sensor.
it splits the face exactly into equal halves with one side being in the light, and the other in shadow.
To create loop lighting, the light source must be slightly higher than eye level and about 30-45 degrees from the camera (depends on the person, you have to learn how to read people's faces).
To create Rembrandt lighting the subject must turn slightly away from the light. The light must be above the top of their head so that the shadow from their nose falls down towards the cheek.
Butterfly lighting is created by having the light source directly behind the camera and slightly above eye or head level of the subject (depends on the person). It is sometimes supplemented by placing a reflector directly under their chin, with the subject themselves even holding it!
Broad lighting is when the subject's face is slightly turned away from centre, and the side of the face which is toward the camera (is broader) is in the light. This produces a larger area of light on the face, and a shadow side which appears smaller. To create broad lighting the face is turned away from the light source.
In short lighting, the face is turned towards the light source this time. Notice how the part of the face that is turned away from the camera has the most light on it and the shadows are falling on the near side of the face, closet to the camera.
Who took the first printed photograph?
A. Thomas Wedgwood
B. Nicephore Niepce
C. Sir John Hersche
D. William Henry Fox Talbot
B. Nicephore Niepce
When was the first photograph taken?
continuous autofocus, the autofocus system will continue focusing until you take the photo, so the subject is still sharp, even if they move. This camera setting is essential to understand for photographing moving objects.
Aspect ratio is simply the ratio of the height to width. An 8 x 10 has an equal aspect ratio to a 4 x 5, but a 4 x 7 image is a bit wider. You can change the aspect ratio in your camera if you know how you'd like to print your image, or you can crop your photo when you edit it to the right ratio.
Bokeh is the orbs created when lights are out of focus in an image. It's a neat effect to have in the background of a photo, created through wide apertures.
you can turn the burst mode on and the camera will continue snapping photos as long as you hold the button down, or until the buffer is full (which is a fancy way of saying the camera can't process any more). Burst speeds differ based on what camera you own, some are faster than others. Just how fast is written in "fps" or frames (pictures) per second.
Digital Vs. Optical?
Digital and optical are important terms to understand when shopping for a new camera. Digital means the effect is achieved through software, not physical parts of the camera. Optical is always better than digital.
Exposure is how light or dark an image is.
Exposure compensation is a way to tell the camera that you'd like the exposure to be lighter or darker
When your eyes focus on an object that's close to you, the objects far away will appear blurry.
You probably know that the flash is a burst of light—flash sync determines when the flash fires. Normally, the flash fires at the beginning of the photo, but changing the flash sync mode adjusts when that happens. The rear curtain flash sync mode, for example, fires the flash at the end of the photo instead of the beginning.
In photography, a histogram is a chart that depicts how many light and dark pixels are in an image.
Hot shoe is the slot at the top of a camera for adding accessories, like the aptly named hot shoe flash.
A long exposure is an image that has been exposed for a long time, or uses a long shutter speed. This technique is useful for shooting still objects in low light, or rendering moving objects into an artistic blur.
Noise is simply little flecks in an image, also sometimes called grain. Images taken at high ISOs have a lot of noise, so it's best to use the lowest ISO you can for the amount of light in the scene.
RAW is a file type that gives the photographer more control over photo editing. RAW is considered a digital negative, where the default JPEG file type has already been processed a bit. RAW requires special software to open, however, while JPEG is more universal.
Rule of Thirds?
This compositional rule suggests imagining the image has been divided into three parts both horizontally and vertically.
Your eyes automatically adjust to different light sources, but a camera can't do that—that's why sometimes you take an image and it looks very blue or very yellow
higher the number the brighter the photo will be
exposure time is the length of time when the film or digital sensor inside the camera is exposed to light
how much of the photo is in focus
An image that is brighter than it should be can be considered overexposed.
is the term used to describe a signal charge from extremely bright pixels that results in over-saturated pixels.
is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.
is a noticeable distortion of media (including images, audio, and video) caused by the application of lossy compression.
is a powerful tool for emphasizing texture and drawing viewer focus.
particularly in digital photography, purple fringing (sometimes called PF) is the term for an out-of-focus purple or magenta "ghost" image on a photograph.
posterisation of an image entails conversion of a continuous gradation of tone to several regions of fewer tones, with abrupt changes from one tone to another.
like a snapchat filter wide in middle (fisheye lens)
Which term describes unposed photos when the subject is not aware of being photographed?
Which camera function allows you to view photos you've already taken?
Ancient civilizations used camera obscuras to form images on walls in darkened rooms.
What does SLR stand for?
Single lens reflex
Which term describes the difference between the lightest and darkest areas in a photograph?
Which compositional technique uses a blurry background and a sharp subject that's in focus?
Which compositional technique uses lines to bring the viewer into, out of, and around the photograph?
What does the word "photography" mean?
Writing with light
The Daguerreotypes used a copper plate coated with silver and exposed to iodine vapor before it was exposed to light to create a photograph. (true or false)
You want to take a photo with blurred motion. Which of the following actions will accomplish this?
Lengthen the shutter speed
Both AF and MF affect what part of the photo?
The sharpness of the subject
Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Which type of zoom uses the camera's lens to magnify the image?
What type of digital camera has a detachable lens?
A photo is underexposed. Which of the following actions will solve this?
Lengthen the shutter speed
You want to take a photo with a diffused background. Which of the following actions will accomplish this?
Decrease the f-stop
What is dodging in photography?
Making the exposure lighter during printing or editing.
What is burning in photography?
Making the exposure darker during printing or editing.
What is the gleam of reflected light in the eye of a person or animal in a photograph?
When is the sun at its brightest point in the sky?
Light or dark tones, no color.
A photograph is a type of raster image.
Allows you to adjust tones of an image, specifically dark, middle, or light pixels.
What does ppi stand for?
Pixels per inch
When would you're use the "Bulb" setting?
When you need a very long exposure
What does a prime lens have that regular lenses do not?
A fixed focal length
What does EOS stand for?
Electronic optical system
What does FPS stand for?
Frames per second
What does GIF stand for?
Graphics interchange format
What does SDHC stand for?
Secure Digital High Capacity
Basic Daylight Exposure or the Sunny 16 Rule. On a sunny day, your proper exposure outdoors will always be 1/125th of a second at f16.
The natural light in a scene
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