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Terms in this set (55)
the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration down/ along its concentration gradient until an equilibrium is reached or until there is no net movement of particles. This process is passive transport and does not require ATP to occur.
movement of water molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration through a semi-permeable membrane until an equilibrium is reached or until there is no net movement of water. This process is passive transportation and does not require energy from ATP to occur.
all possess energy and move constantly
why do organisms exchange with the environment?
they exchange substances to live and need a certain amount in order to survive
chemical reactions occurring in an organism (e.x getting rid of waste)
specialized exchange surfaces
the exchange of substances with the environment that takes place at the surface of the organism
surface area to volume ratio
Ratio of a cell's outside area to its internal volume.
6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Light dependent stage
Light splits into hydrogen ions and oxygen ions in a process called photolysis. The oxygen is a waste product and is diffused into the air.
Light energy to Chemical energy.
Light independent stage
The hydrogen ions produced in photolysis is used to reduce carbon dioxide to glucose. Uses ATP
The bond formed between amino acids
Protein molecules can be broken down by
Peptide bond functions
1) Source of energy
2) Last reserve of food
3) synthesis of new proteins for growth and repair of cells
4) synthesis of enzymes and some hormones and antibodies
Takes place within the chloroplasts in the thylakoids where chlorophyll is found. The light independent stage takes place in the stroma.
Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose
Sucrose, maltose, lactose
Starch, glycogen, cellulose ( fiber content or roughage, insoluble)
The five main groups of nutrients include
Carbohydrates, Lipids (fats), Proteins, Vitamins and Minerals
Essential components of a balanced diet are
Water and dietary fiber
The solvent for metabolic activities in living organisms. Cytoplasm and blood plasma is mainly made up of water and is thus important in transport as well.
Carbohydrates are organic molecules made up of
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
The general formula for carbohydrates
Glucose is a simple carbohydrate and it's formula is
Three categories of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
are the simplest carbohydrates made up or only one sugar molecule
When monosaccharides are combined
A condensation reaction occurs and a water molecule is removed
Disaccharides can also be
Broken down into monosaccharides by a reaction called hydrolysis where a water molecule is added
Consist of many monosaccharide molecules joined together in a condensation reaction
When polysaccharides are hydrolysed
They break down into monosaccharides or disaccharides
1) source of energy
2) storage of energy
3) a source of dietary fibre
Lipids (fats) are
Organic molecules made up of Carbon , Hydrogen and Oxygen
Fats are a part of a group called?
What are it's other components?
Fats are part of a group called Lipids. It's other components are triglycerides, phospholipids, waxes, steroids and cholesterol
Fats are ...... at room temperature
Oils are ...... at room temperature
Fat molecules are made up of
Glycerol and fatty acids
Alternative source of energy after carbohydrates are used up, an essential component of cell membranes, a solvent or the synthesis, transport and absorption of some vitamins and hormones and an insulating material in bodies of animals
Most fatty acids in our bodies required can be synthesis by
Between saturated and unsaturated fats which one is healthier?
Unsaturated fats are healthier
Organic molecules of long chains of amino acids made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and sometimes sulphur
How many kinds of amino acids are there?
20 different kinds
How many amino acids do animals need to obtain?
They need eight which are referred to as essential amino acids. The other twelve amino acids can be made by our bodies and are non essential amino acids
Amino acids link together in a .....
A condensation reaction to form long chains of amino acids called polypeptides
The lack of proteins from the diet for a long period of time results in
Deficiency diseases such as kwashiorkor and marasmus.
Water functions in our diet
1) For metabolism
2) As a solvent
3) For transport
4) Is a key compound of protoplasm, lubricants, digestive juices, blood and tissue fluid to the body
5) Control of body temperature
Organic substances required by the body in very small amounts to ensure normal growth and metabolism
Inorganic substances which are also needed only in small amounts
The lack of vitamins and minerals will result in
A deficiency disease
Involves the build up of organic molecules such as glucose and from inorganic molecules such as carbon dioxide and water. Requires the use of energy to manufacture its own organic molecules,
Plants, algae and some bacteria
Involves feeding on other organisms to obtain organic molecules which are then broken down into simple soluble molecules
Animals, fungi and some bacteria
Plants are organisms which use light as their source of energy to drive the process of photosynthesis
Use energy from chemical reactions. This takes place in bacteria
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