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Pysch Test Questions

Research on nonverbal communication indicates thatL
A. very young children's facial expressions of emotion are difficult to interpret.
B. children learn the facial expressions associated with emotion by observing adults.
C. blind children who have never observed others demonstrate normal facial expressions of emotion.
D. boys are better than girls at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion.
According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.
A. before; before
B. before; after
C. after; at the same time as
D. at the same time as; after
If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of
A. the catharsis hypothesis.
B. relative deprivation.
C. the James-Lange theory.
D. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
Most recent participants reported feeling more happy than sad after rubberbands secured to the sides of their faces were stretched over the tops of their heads. Their reactions best illustrated
A. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
B. the adaptation-level principle.
C. the facial feedback effect.
D. the spillover effect.
People experience a mood shift when they switch from taking short shuffling steps to taking long strides and swinging their arms by their sides. This best illustrates
A. the adaptation-level phenomenon.
B. the spillover effect.
C. the behavior feedback phenomenon.
D. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
Which of the following BEST explains why stress heightens vulnerability to bacterial and viral infections?
A. Stress hormones accelerate the "hardening" of the arteries.
B. Stress hormones facilitate the depositing of cholesterol and fat around the heart.
C. Stress hormones suppress the production of lymphocytes.
D. Stress hormones trigger the release of carcinogens.
Lymphocytes are
A. harmful agents such as chemicals and viruses that cross the placenta from mother to fetus.
B. stress hormones produced by the sympathetic nervous system.
C. cancer cells that form in the lymph glands.
D. white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system.
To alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, Jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. Jeremy's behavior best illustrates
A. a Type A personality.
B. a Type B personality.
C. problem-focused coping.
D. emotion-focused coping.
Volunteers who participated in an eight-week course of meditation training exhibited increased levels of the ______ activity associated with positive emotions.
A. left hemisphere
B. right hemisphere
C. somatic nervous system
D. autonomic nervous system
Reduced feelings of tension following aggressive outbursts contribute to
A. spontaneous remission.
B. adaptation-level phenomenon.
C. the spillover effect.
D. the reinforcement of aggression.
A loss of perceived control tends to result in
A. low blood pressure.
B. reduced immune responses.
C. problem-focused coping.
D. low blood sugar levels.
The genes in muscle cells that are not activated by exercise produce lower quantities of proteins, which leaves us susceptible to
A. type 2 diabetes.
B. cardiovascular disease.
C. cancer.
D. all of these diseases.
Men and women students watched film clips that were sad, happy, or frightening. Measures taken during their viewing of films showed that the genders differed the most in their
A. self-reported emotions.
B. changes in heart rate.
C. facial expressions of emotion.
D. changes in respiration.
The basic components of emotion are
A. sympathetic arousal, parasympathetic inhibition, and cognitive labeling.
B. physical gestures, facial expressions, and psychological drives.
C. expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.
D. cognition, affect, and behavior.
As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her ________ nervous system.
A. sympathetic
B. central
C. somatic
D. parasympathetic
According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.
A. facial expressions; a cognitive label
B. emotion-arousing events; physical arousal
C. physical arousal; overt behavior
D. a cognitive label; physical arousal
Rannilt was euphoric after learning that she had been accepted by the medical school of her choice. After a few weeks, however, she is only mildly excited when she thinks about her admission to medical school. This change in her feelings can best be explained in terms of
A. the catharsis hypothesis.
B. relative deprivation.
C. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
D. the adaptation-level phenomenon.
Research on stressful life events indicates that
A. those who live a relatively peaceful, monastic life actually suffer a higher-than-average rate of heart attacks.
B. those who have been recently widowed, fired, or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.
C. survivors of a natural disaster are immunized against stress and have fewer long-term health problems.
D. all of these statements are true.
It has been suggested that baring the teeth is universally associated with the expression of anger because this ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates the
A. evolutionary perspective.
B. relative deprivation principle.
C. two-factor theory.
D. adaptation-level phenomenon.
People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of
A. anger.
B. surprise.
C. happiness.
D. boredom.
Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Cameron most likely experiencing?
A. resistance
B. alarm reaction
C. adjustment
D. exhaustion
After receiving very bad news, people ________ the duration of their negative emotions.
A. overestimate
B. accurately estimate
C. slightly underestimate
D. radically underestimate
A Harvard School of Public Health research team studied 1306 initially healthy men over a 10-year period. They found that ________ were more than twice as likely as ________ to develop heart disease.
A. introverts; extraverts
B. married men; single men
C. Type B personalities; Type A personalities
D. pessimists; optimists
As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ________ nervous system.
A. parasympathetic
B. sympathetic
C. somatic
D. central
A friend's misdeed is especially likely to trigger feelings of anger if the misdeed is perceived as
A. a spontaneous remission.
B. a spillover effect.
C. cathartic.
D. willful.
The emotional bonding and mutual support that survivors of natural disasters provide to one another best illustrates
A. the general adaptation syndrome.
B. the tend-and-befriend response.
C. spontaneous remission.
D. biofeedback.
Social loafing is MOST likely to occur among
A. audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced.
B. factory workers paid on the basis of individual level of productivity.
C. a group of runners competing for first place in a race.
D. students who are each assigned a different topic for their course term papers.
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
A. neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.
B. perform simple tasks more effectively in the presence of others.
C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.
D. experience an increasing attraction to novel stimuli as they become more familiar.
In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were MOST likely to deliver high levels of shock when
A. the experimenter was perceived to be an ordinary college student like themselves.
B. the "learner" was placed in a different room from the "teacher."
C. they saw that other "learners" disobeyed the experimenter.
D. they saw how "learners" who disobeyed the experimenter were punished.
Your book reports that people who are high in agreeableness tend to use positive emotion words in text messaging. Which of the following can be accurately concluded from this finding?
A. That agreeableness causes positive emotions.
B. That highly agreeable people tend to text more than others.
C. That personality is the cause of behavior.
D. That use of positive emotion words in texts are associated with the trait of agreeableness.
Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between
A. manifest content and latent content.
B. the collective unconscious and the personal unconscious.
C. the actual self and the ideal self.
D. an internal locus of control and an external locus of control.
The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of ________ and ________ on behavior.
A. self-concept; self-esteem
B. optimism; pessimism
C. environments; traits
D. the real self; the ideal self
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
A. the Barnum effect.
B. projection.
C. the spotlight effect.
D. unconditional positive regard.
Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates
A. reciprocal determinism.
B. the false consensus effect.
C. an external locus of control.
D. the spotlight effect.
The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of
A. moral integrity.
B. self-consciousness.
C. behavioral consistency.
D. self-actualization.
The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our
A. temperaments.
B. situations.
C. fixations.
D. self-concepts.
Professor Wang is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards. Other committee members want to begin accepting students with below-average grades. Professor Wang personally disagrees, but he will probably vote in favor of their plan if
A. the other committee members are all in favor of the plan.
B. he states his personal opinion early in the committee's discussion.
C. the committee votes by private ballot.
D. he has a high level of self-esteem.
Attribution theory was designed to account for
A. the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others.
B. the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior.
C. the loss of self-awareness that occurs in group situations.
D. how people explain others' behavior.
Comedy routines that are mildly amusing to people in an uncrowded room seem funnier in a densely packed room. This is best explained in terms of
A. the mere exposure effect.
B. social facilitation.
C. the bystander effect.
D. ingroup bias.
According to Freud, the unconscious is
A. the part of personality that cannot process information.
B. the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
C. a set of universal concepts acquired by all humans from our common past.
D. a reservoir of deeply repressed memories that does not affect behavior.
A notable improvement in morale was observed among nursing home patients who experienced an enhanced sense of
A. fixation.
B. free association.
C. personal control.
D. factor analysis.
According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
A. Oedipus complex.
B. ego.
C. id.
D. superego.
Psychodynamic theories emphasize that personality involves a dynamic interaction between
A. persons and situations.
B. conditioning and observational learning.
C. conscious and unconscious mental processes.
D. unconditional positive regard and self-actualization.
Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.
A. predicting; assessing
B. describing; explaining
C. changing; analyzing
D. interpreting; observing
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called
A. group polarization.
B. social facilitation.
C. ingroup bias.
D. the mere exposure effect.
Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
A. "To proceed democratically, we need to know the honest opinions of all group members."
B. "We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there's no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."
C. "Do any of you see any potential problem with our group's position?"
D. "As a group, we have to think carefully about all the pros and cons surrounding this issue."
A refusal to believe direct and highly credible evidence that your spouse is suffering a terminal illness best illustrates
A. denial.
B. displacement.
C. fixation.
D. projection.
According to terror-management theory, anxiety about our own mortality motivates us to enhance our
A. self-esteem.
B. parallel processing.
C. reciprocal determinism.
D. external locus of control.
The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.
A. normative influences; informational influences
B. informational influences; normative influences
C. personal dispositions; situational influences
D. situational influences; personal dispositions
Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called
A. external locus of control.
B. self-serving bias.
C. the spotlight effect.
D. fixation.
Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
A. the spotlight effect.
B. unconditional positive regard.
C. self-actualization.
D. free association.
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
A. neuroticism.
B. extraversion.
C. openness.
D. conscientiousness.
Students judged an averaged, composite face as
A. less attractive than most individual faces because the averaged face was less symmetrical.
B. more attractive than most individual faces because the averaged face was more symmetrical.
C. less attractive than most individual faces because the averaged face was more symmetrical.
D. more attractive than most individual faces because the averaged face was less symmetrical.
According to social exchange theory, altruistic behavior is guided by
A. calculations of costs and benefits.
B. feelings of social responsibility.
C. reciprocity norms.
D. family ties.
Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of
A. passionate love.
B. social facilitation.
C. self-disclosure.
D. the mere exposure effect.
After she received a free hand-painted Christmas ornament from a religious organization, Mrs. Montevecchi felt obligated to mail a cash donation to the organization. Her response to the free gift best illustrates the impact of the
A. mere exposure effect.
B. just-world phenomenon.
C. fundamental attribution error.
D. reciprocity norm.
If one were to generalize from Sherif's study of conflict resolution between two groups of campers, the best way for the United States and China to improve their relationship would be to
A. hold highly publicized athletic contests between the two countries.
B. minimize their trade and economic exchanges.
C. conduct a joint space program designed to land humans on Mars.
D. allow citizens of each country the right to freely immigrate to the other country.
When 68-year-old Mrs. Blake had a flat tire on a fairly isolated highway, she received help from a passerby in less than 10 minutes. One year later, when she had a flat tire on a busy freeway, an hour elapsed before someone finally stopped to offer assistance. Mrs. Blake's experience best illustrates
A. the fundamental attribution error.
B. the mere exposure effect.
C. group polarization.
D. the bystander effect.
Which of the following would be the best advice to give parents who are concerned about the frequent aggressive outbursts of their 6-year-old son?
A. "Make a point of rewarding and praising your son whenever he is socially cooperative and altruistic."
B. "Be consistent in spanking your child after every outburst so he'll realize that aggression never pays."
C. "Encourage your son to watch the devastating consequences of violence portrayed on TV."
D. "Don't be concerned about your child's aggressiveness, unless the behavior pattern continues beyond the fifth grade."
The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strongly suggests that it is NOT
A. a reaction to frustration.
B. influenced by social norms.
C. an unlearned instinct.
D. a product of deindividuation.
Ellie is unusually attractive and intelligent, and she works hard to please her husband. He displays little affection for her, however, and spends most of the family's resources on his own interests. Ellie's relationship with her husband is best characterized as
A. deindividuated.
B. companionate.
C. inequitable.
D. implicit.
Your book reports that research shows that "University men who spent the most hours playing violent video games tended to be the most physically aggressive" (p. 605). Which of the statements below is an appropriate conclusion based on this finding alone?
A.People shouldn't play any video games at all because they lead to aggression.
B.This study does not demonstrate that playing violent video games causes aggression, because other factors could account for both involvement in violent video games and aggressive behavior.
C.This study shows that playing lots of violent video games causes aggressive behavior.
D.Girls aren't aggressive because they don't play violent video games.
People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as ________ each other and the members of an ingroup as ________ each other.
A. different from; similar to
B. similar to; different from
C. similar to; similar to
D. different from; different from
A conflict in which both participants can benefit by cooperating with each other has been represented as a
A. social facilitation.
B. mere exposure effect.
C. non-zero-sum game.
D. just-world phenomenon.
An eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by God for their sins is best explained in terms of
A. deindividuation.
B. ingroup bias.
C. the bystander effect.
D. the just-world phenomenon.
Continuing to operate a fuel-inefficient car despite warnings about the effect of greenhouse gases best illustrates the dynamics of
A. social loafing.
B. a social trap.
C. the fundamental attribution error.
D. the mere exposure effect.
At a conscious level, Aaron doesn't think he's prejudiced. Yet he automatically feels uncomfortable in situations where he has to interact with people of different races from his own. Aaron's experience best illustrates the distinction between
A. equity and self-disclosure.
B. situational and dispositional attributions.
C. explicit and implicit attitudes.
D. normative and informational social influence.
The Y chromosome is the most well-known genetic marker identifying those who are most likely to
A. form stereotypes.
B. engage in aggression.
C. experience cognitive dissonance.
D. commit the fundamental attribution error.
Haley thinks Keith's silence indicates that he's angry, so she avoids talking to him. Unfortunately, Keith thinks Haley's quietness signifies that she's angry and wants to be left alone. This situation best illustrates
A. mirror-image perceptions.
B. the reciprocity norm.
C. superordinate goals.
D. deindividuation.