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Industrial Revolution
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Terms in this set (59)
Spread of Industrialization (US)-United States: leading industrial force by 1900, transcontinental railroad connected the Atlantic to the Pacific, vast natural resources (timber, coal and oil), human capital (workforce) immigrants and migrants provided laborA Second Revolution in the USAOccurred during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (late 1800s/ early 1900s)1st RevolutionInnovations in textiles, steam power and iron2nd Revolutioninnovations in steel, chemicals, precision machinery and electronics -chemical techniques to extract kerosene from petroleum -internal combustion engine, automobile and airplane technologies -street lighting, telephones, wireless communication and radioJapan Industrializes-Japan will end its self imposed isolation under the Emperor Meiji (1868-1912) -Leaders hired foreign experts to instruct workers and business managers about modern industry -Replicated problems of abuse and exploitation of workersRussian Industrialization-By 1900 Russia had more than 36,000 miles of railroad -Trans-Siberian Railroad -Traded with East Asia, coal, iron and steelSocial Structure(top-bottom) -NEW wealthy industrialists and owners of larger corporations "Captains of Industry" -Middle Class: education and manager positions "White Collar Jobs" -Bottom Class: low skilled jobs, factory laborers and coal miners "Blue Collar Jobs"Social Effects of Industrial Revolution (Family)men, women and children worked 14 hour days, 6 days a week in dangerous conditionsSocial Effects of Industrial Revolution (Urban Areas)inhumane living conditions -tenement/slums had polluted water and open sewersSocial Effects of Industrial Revolution (Women)-working class women worked in coal mines -cult of domesticity idealized female homemakerMore Effects of Industrial Revolution (Mass Culture)-consumerism, leisure activities (sports/ Olympics/vegas)More Effects of Industrial Revolution (Environment)-burning of fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas caused by toxic pollutionMore Effects of Industrial Revolution (Business Organization)-corporations, stockholders and monopoliesGrowth of Unions-Labor unions were organizations of workers that advocated for the rights to bargain -reform movements to fix dangers and unsanitary working conditions -banned child laborMarxism-Karl Marx and Frederick Engels published "The Communist Manifesto" that critiqued capitalism -Division of people lead to INEVITABLE CLASS STRUGGLEProletariat-working class -worked dangerous jobs for very little wealthBourgeoisie-middle class/owners of factories -exploited proletariat for profitEND OF CAPITALISMera of equality and justice aka COMMUNISMLegacy-mass production made goods cheaper, more abundant and easily accessible -migration from rural to cities -low & high smiled workers took advantage of new opportunities -search for more raw materials for factories led to IMPERIALISMTradition Values-social and business the same -resists change -close contact with people -relationships with people -think modern values are hollow and ignorantModernization-social and business separate -thrives on change -developed as society grew -create own environment -held by power -think traditional values are primitiveThe Ottoman Empire (The Rise of Muhammad Ali)-French forces led by Napoleon, overthrew Mamluks (military class) ———Napoleonic wars forced French to retreat -Muhammad Ali gained control Egypt, Arabia and the Sudan for Egypt ———Lost Greece in Battle of Navarino (1827) due to support from Russia, France and Great Britain -Muhammad Ali's descendants continued to rule with limited power given by Great BritainAli as a Reformer-reconstructed Egyptian military to model the Europeans -practiced military conscription -established schools, educated officers in France -newspaper -translated texts from French to Arabic -high taxation led to government control of cotton production -industrialization/textile factories in CairoREFORM AND SURVIVAL-Sultan Selim III: military and administrative changes (copy Europeans) angered the Janissaries, who then had him executed in 1807Sultan Mahmud II-eliminated Janissaries and created a diplomatic corps and westernized the remaining military forces -tax collections sent to central governmentTanzimat Reforms-worked to expel corruption -education was secular and focused on military, engineering, translation and civil service -roads, canals and bridges (INFRASTRUCTURE) -codified law to allow foreigners to do business in the empire -Ottoman Reform Edict declared equality for al men in education, government and justice regardless of religionPower of BalkansBalkan Territories (Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia) were protected by Russia or Austro-Hungarian Empire -Losses of territory in the Balkans illustrate the increasing power of the Europeans to make boundaries and control during pre WW1The Sick Man of Europe: Economyprices for food and crops declined caused by wealth of European colonies in the AmericasThe Sick Man of Europe: Society-legal reforms benefited men more than women -ended traditional Islamic women's rightsThe Sick Man of Europe: Decline-Extraterritoriality: foreign countries follow laws of their land not host country -Capitulations:concessions made by sultans to foreigners -Turkification: process of cultural changeThe Last Dynasty: The Fall of the Qing Empire in China (1644-1911) Foreign Trade and Unequal Treaties-restricted trade for Europeans and the refusal of European goods angered western leaders and merchants -Chinese were suspicious of Europeans refusal of kowtow -the British were quick to find an item that the Chinese would trade for instead of silver....OPIUMThe Opium War (1839-1842)-the British planned to export opium from India to China in order to improve the European balance of trade -The Qing government recognized the threat to both their economy and their society and blockaded and confiscated European opium suppliesResults of the Opium War-Lacking a navy, China quickly lost and negotiated Treaty of Nanking -extended trading rights -granted extraterritoriality -Hong Kong became British colony -Spheres of Influence: European powers came to control trade in different parts of ChinaA Civilization at Risk: Rebellion-resentment towards emperor for extraterritorial and Christian missionaries -Taiping rebellion: man claiming to be brother of Jesus called for land redistribution, the liberation of women, and the destruction of Confucian scholar-gentry -20 million dead (mostly civilians)Reform Efforts and complicationsReform Efforts and complications -the goal of the Chinese was to implant technology onto tradition rather than create major change -regional "warlords" made their own demands to levy taxes and raise army (even hired western advisors) and go against Qing governmentSelf Strengthening Movementstrengthen China with military technology and readinessEmpress Cixi and conservatism-more reforms "100 days of reform" attempted to abolish civil service exam and established industrialization -CIXI was mother of emperor and had him imprisoned for attempting to westernize China -Dowager Empress Cixi repealed western reformBoxer Rebellion-righteous and harmonious Order of Fists or "The Boxers" opposed presence of foreigners in China -rebellion targeted Christian missionaries and converts -not all Chinese leaders supported government's attempt to kick out the westResult of the Boxer Rebellionthe Empress had to admit she lost and was forced to pay the spheres of influenceThe End of the Civilization-at the end of Cixi's reign, she recognized problems with the traditional ways of life -2,500 years of tradition ended the bureaucracy, scholar gentry, civil service exam and finally...the dynastic cycleJapan and the Meiji Restoration: Contact with the West-after 200 years of self imposed isolation, Japan yielded to American pressure in the form of a naval squad led by Commodore Matthew Perry 1853 -gave into pressure from the U.S., Britain, the Netherlands and Russia (Open Door Policy) -Japan would rather open itself than face interference like the ChineseMeiji Restoration (1868-1912): Emperor Mutsuhito Reforms-abolished feudalism and Carter Oath -constitutional monarchy -remodeled military/ military conscription -postal service -new education system -promoted industrialization -railroad networkCollapse of the Shogunate-Shoguns had ruled Japan since the twelfth century (1100s) but were unable to face conflict with Europeans -Shoguns were forced to abdicate after few lords allied in unpopular treaties with the West -Samurai resistedFrom Isolation to Imperialismby 1893, Japan was looking to China, Korea and Russia to enlarge its holdings and influenceRusso-Japanese War-Japaneses victory humiliated Russians who they had considered inferior -Japanese got preferred position in Manchuria and a protectorate in KoreaSino Japanese WarChina gave up the island known as Taiwan and the Liaodong PeninsulaEND RESULTS: Ottoman-had not adopted western technology or enlightenment principles -corruption -ethnic nationalismEND RESULTS: Japan-Meiji Restoration (strong central government) -rapidly adopted technology and culture from the WestEND RESULTS: China-Opium War -Spheres of Influence