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BIO 31 EXAM 2
Terms in this set (23)
Know the chemical equation of cellular respiration
Understand fermentation (how is it different than cellular respiration, how it is initiated, and why it is utilized)
•Fermentation refers to glucose-breakdown pathways that make ATP without the use of oxygen or electron transfer chains, while cellular respiration requires oxygen to maintain the aerobic process.
•Begins with glycolysis where glucose is broken down using 2 molecules of ATP and produces minimal ATP and pyruvate, but does not include electron transfer phosphorylation. It does not break down all of the carbon-carbon bonds in glucose, so some products include two-carbon and three-carbon molecules.
•Fermentation is used for fuel as well as food: yogurt, cheese, alcohol beverages, and bread.
Understand photorespiration (how it is different from photosynthesis, how it is initiated, and why it is utilized)
• Photorespiration refers to the release of CO2 in a catabolic process (respiration) that takes place in presence of light. On the other hand, photosynthesis is a anabolic process in which sugar molecules form from raw materials like CO2, water using the energy of sunlight.
• Photorespiration: a pathway initiated by rubisco when it attaches oxygen instead of CO2 to RuBP. Photorespiration converts the product of O2 & RuBP into a substrate of the Calvin-Benson cycle (ATP required).
• As a result, CO2 is produced, along with ammonia, which detoxifies the plant.
Understand photosynthesis (what main steps are used and in what order, what is produced, what electron shuttles are utilized, where does it happen, what types of cells perform it, etc.)
• Photosynthesis: a process whereby plants, algae, and certain bacteria transform light energy into chemical energy. Uses CO2 and water as starting material. Releases O2as a gaseous by product.
•Sugar (glucose) is produced.
Understand transmitted versus reflected light, and how we see
Know the chemical equation of photosynthesis
Understand DNA replication, and what is meant by a "semiconservative process"
Understand what is meant by DNA's "directionality"
Understand energy and how it is conserved.
Energy: the capacity to cause change used to perform work, like moving an object against an opposing Force.
Conservation of energy: the physical principle where it is not possible to destroy or create energy.
Energy is conserved by converting from one another
potential energy > kinetic energy>potential energy > kinetic energy
Potential energy Is stored energy
Kinetic energy Is energy of motion
Understand the concepts of metabolism
Metabolism is the total of all the chemical reactions in an organism.
countless chemical reactions constantly change in organisms molecular makeup
Metabolic reactions occur with the help of enzymes
Understand the differences between diffusion and osmosis (hint: its more than just particles vs. water!)
Diffusion: substance will diffuse from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated
Osmosis: Water will diffuse across a
selectively permeable membrane from a lower concentration of solute to higher concentration of solute making them equal concentrations
(But changing the volume)
Understand that biological membranes are semi-permeable, and what that selectivity means for diffusion and osmosis
Understand enzymes (what they are, how they work, why they are utilized, how they can be inhibited)
Enzymes: proteins that speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by those reactions.
Enzymes enable metabolism to occur by reducing the amount of activation energy required to break bonds of reactant molecules. ( put them under stress)
enzymes lower their energy barrier that must be jumped, acting as a catalyst for the reaction.
They inhibit a metabolic reaction by binding to an enzyme and disrupting its function (enzyme inhibitors).
Understand ATP (and ADP + P) as THE form of chemical energy in biology
ATP: adenosine triphosphate) a molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes.
ADP: a lower energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group.
Understand the differences between active and passive transport
Passive transport: diffusion of molecules across a membrane of higher concentration to lower concentration. - Creates equal concentration without expending energy to duck so
Activate transport: The movement of molecules across a membrane that equates energy to be expended. (requires cellular energy (ATP)
Understand cellular respiration (what 3 main steps are used and in what order, what is produced and used at each step, what electron shuttles are utilized, where does it happen, what types of cells perform it, etc.)
Cellular respiration: Aerobic Harvesting of a chemical energy from organic fuel molecules
GLYCOLYSIS: a series of reactions that produce ATP by converting glucose to pyruvate.(occurs in cytoplasm)
uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP = net yield of to ATP
ACETYL-CoA: Pyruvate produced by glycolysis is shuttled Into the mitochondrial Matrix.
2 pyruvate molecules From glycolysis >2 acetyl-coa
ELECTRON TRANSFER :
The last step of aerobic respiration electron flow through electron transport chains setup by hydrogen ion (H+) gradient that drives ATP synthesis.
NAD+ : Acts as an energy shuttle carrying High energy electrons from one area to another
NAD+ > NADH
FADH2 : Similar molecule which utilizes electrons
FAD > FADH2
Understand the central dogma (what order does it follow, what steps are used, what molecules play a large role in each step, etc.)
Understand RNA processing (RNA à mRNA)
Understand the different types of RNA, and when they are used
Understand gene expression and how it is regulated
Understand the concept of master genes and cascades, and when they are utilized
Understand DNA technologies such as knockouts, vectors, cDNA, PCR, gel electrophoresis, cloning, etc. (how and why are they used?)
Know how to translate a sequence of DNA into RNA (following base pairing rules)
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