Chapter 1: Themes in the Study of Life

Biology Campbell Reese
descent with modification; idea that living species are descendants of ancestors that were different from present-day organisms; change in genetic composition of a population from generation to generation
scientific study of life
emergent properties
new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study
systems biology
an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems; allows for predictions when one variable of a component changes
a type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; organisms with these cells include protists, plants, fungi, and animals
a type of cell lacking both a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; bacteria and archaea
double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits
the use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that result from high-throughput methods
negative feedback
the most common form of regulation; accumulation of an end product slows its own processing
positive feedback
process in which an end product speeds up its own production
animalia, fungi, plantae, protista, monera
five kingdoms
archaea, bacteria, eukarya
three domains
Charles Darwin
person who believed in 1) descent with modification--captures unity and diversity, and 2) natural selection--causes evolution as the unequal reproductive successes of individuals adapts the population to its environment
recorded observations; can be quantitative or qualitative
inductive reasoning
a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations (specific >>> general)
deductive reasoning
a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise (general >>> specific)
controlled experiment
an experiment that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group; ideally, the only difference between the groups is part of what is being tested
a representation of a theory or process; may take form of a graph, diagram, 3D object, computer program, or mathematical equation
any structure, behavior, or internal process that helps an individual to better survive and/or reproduce
the assistance given to one organism by another, even if the act of giving puts the survival of the assisting organism at risk
Sir Richard Dawkins
the person who believed in altruism as the illustration of "the selfish gene"
atoms, biomolecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
levels of biological organization (from simple to complex)
energy processing, evolutionary adaptation, growth and development, order, regulation, reproduction, response to environment
characteristics of life (7, in alphabetical order)
a characteristic of life; highly detailed and organized structure
a characteristic of life; maintenance of homeostasis
energy processing
a characteristic of life; consuming matter, storing energy, using energy
evolutionary adaptation
a characteristic of life; natural selection/descent with modification
growth and development
a characteristic of life; genes control life patterns
response to environment
a characteristic of life; an organism's interaction with its surroundings
a characteristic of life; the creation of new life from pre-existing life
the smallest unit of matter on Earth
combinations of atoms; examples include lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, ATP
combinations of biomolecules; nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane
combinations of organelles; the first unit of life
combinations of cells; types include nervous, muscular, fat, blood
combinations of more than one type of tissue
organ systems
group of organs that work together
the simultaneous and interdependent functioning of various organ systems
group of organisms of a single specie in a localized area
all populations of all species in a localized area
the community plus abiotic factors; also includes interactions between biotic and abiotic components
wherever on Earth that there is life
abiotic factors
components that affect an ecosystem; examples include temperature, rainfall, sunlight, wind, and soil
when two organisms live in close/tight relationships with each other
a type of symbiosis in which one organism acts as a parasite and the other as a host
a type of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit from the relationship
a type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits from the relationship while the other is neither helped nor harmed
cell theory
proponents include 1) all living things are made of cells; 2) cells are the basic unit of life; 3) cells only come from other cells; established by Schleiden and Schwann
the ability to do work; all life needs a constant supply of this
sunlight, producers, consumers
pattern of energy flow
organisms that create their own food
organisms that eat other organisms for energy
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specie
traditional taxonomy
characteristics of this kingdom: heterotrophic, eukaryotic, multicellular, no cell walls
characteristics of this kingdom: heterotroph, eukaryotic, multicellular, cell walls (chitin)
characteristics of this kingdom: autotroph, eukaryotic, multicellular, cell walls (cellulose)
characteristics of this kingdom: both autotrophic and heterotrophic, eukaryotic, unicellular but with some multicellular, some have cell walls while some do not
characteristics of this kingdom: both autotrophic and heterotrophic, prokaryotic, unicellular, cell walls (peptidoglycam or murein)
extreme thermophiles
type of archaea; can survive boiling water, thrive near geysers
extreme halophiles
type of archaea; loves high salt concentrations
type of archaea; poisoned by oxygen, live in waterlogged soils, swamps, produce methane gas
1) contains ribosomes >> proteins; 2) no endoplasmic reticulum; 3) no membrane-bound organelles; 4) one circular chromosome; 5) bacteria; 6) about 10 times smaller; 7) no nucleus (DNA floats around)
1) contains ribosomes >> proteins; 2) contains endoplasmic reticulum; 3) all organelles are membrane-bound; 4) multiple, linear chromosomes; 5) everything besides bacteria; 6) about 10 times larger; 7) membrane-enclosed nucleus