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descent with modification; idea that living species are descendants of ancestors that were different from present-day organisms; change in genetic composition of a population from generation to generation
new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems; allows for predictions when one variable of a component changes
a type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; organisms with these cells include protists, plants, fungi, and animals
a type of cell lacking both a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; bacteria and archaea
double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
the use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that result from high-throughput methods
the most common form of regulation; accumulation of an end product slows its own processing
person who believed in 1) descent with modification--captures unity and diversity, and 2) natural selection--causes evolution as the unequal reproductive successes of individuals adapts the population to its environment
a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations (specific >>> general)
a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise (general >>> specific)
an experiment that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group; ideally, the only difference between the groups is part of what is being tested
a representation of a theory or process; may take form of a graph, diagram, 3D object, computer program, or mathematical equation
any structure, behavior, or internal process that helps an individual to better survive and/or reproduce
the assistance given to one organism by another, even if the act of giving puts the survival of the assisting organism at risk
atoms, biomolecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
levels of biological organization (from simple to complex)
energy processing, evolutionary adaptation, growth and development, order, regulation, reproduction, response to environment
characteristics of life (7, in alphabetical order)
the community plus abiotic factors; also includes interactions between biotic and abiotic components
components that affect an ecosystem; examples include temperature, rainfall, sunlight, wind, and soil
a type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits from the relationship while the other is neither helped nor harmed
proponents include 1) all living things are made of cells; 2) cells are the basic unit of life; 3) cells only come from other cells; established by Schleiden and Schwann
characteristics of this kingdom: autotroph, eukaryotic, multicellular, cell walls (cellulose)
characteristics of this kingdom: both autotrophic and heterotrophic, eukaryotic, unicellular but with some multicellular, some have cell walls while some do not
characteristics of this kingdom: both autotrophic and heterotrophic, prokaryotic, unicellular, cell walls (peptidoglycam or murein)
type of archaea; poisoned by oxygen, live in waterlogged soils, swamps, produce methane gas
1) contains ribosomes >> proteins; 2) no endoplasmic reticulum; 3) no membrane-bound organelles; 4) one circular chromosome; 5) bacteria; 6) about 10 times smaller; 7) no nucleus (DNA floats around)
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