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Ch 12 Test - 8EP Science
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Gravity
Terms in this set (55)
Work
a transfer of energy when a force is applied through a distance; the product of force and distance when a force is used to make an object move
Power
How fast work is done
Joule
Unit of measurement of Work and Energy; a unit of work equal to one newton-meter
Watt
Unit of measurement of Power
Machine
A device that makes work easier; a device that changes the amount of force exerted or the direction in which the force is exerted
Simple machine
a machine that does work with only one movement
Lever
A simple machine with a bar that rotates around a fixed point; a simple machine consisting of a rigid object that pivots about a fixed point
Fulcrum
The fixed point on a lever where it rotates; the fixed point around which a lever pivots
Inclined plane
A simple machine that is a slanted surface; a simple machine consisting of a flat surface with one end higher than the other
Wheel and axle
A simple machine made up of two different sized wheels that move together as one unit; a simple machine consisting of two circular or cylindrical objects that are fastened together and rotate about a common axis
Wedge
A simple machine that is used to split or cut; a simple machine consisting of a device that is thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other
Screw
A simple machine that is an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder; a simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped around a central cylinder to form a spiral
Pulley
A simple machine that has a rope that fits in a wheel with a groove in it; a simple machine consisting of a grooved wheel around which is wrapped a rope, chain, or cable
Compound machine
A combination of two or more simple machines that work together; a device that combines two or more simple machines
Mechanical advantage
The number of times a machine increases the input force; the number of time the force exerted on a machine is multiplied by the machine
Input force
The force applied to a machine; the force exerted on a machine
Output force
The force applied by the machine; the force exerted on an object by a machine
Work input
The work done on a machine
Work output
The work done by a machine
Efficiency
The percentage of the work input that becomes work output in a machine; the percentage of the input work that is converted to output work
Actual Mechanical Advantage
the mechanical advantage that a machine provides in a real situation
Ideal Mechanical Advantage
the mechanical advantage that a machine would have without friction
Gears
two or more wheels linked together by interlocking teeth
Work (formula)
Force x Distance
Power (formula)
Work / Time
Three factors that changing at least one will make work easier
1. the amount of force you exert
2. the distance over which you exert your force
3. the direction in which you exert your force
Input Work (formula)
Input Force (Fi) x Input Distance (Di)
Output Work (formula)
Output Force (Fo) x Output Distance (Do)
Mechanical Advantage (formula)
Output Force (Fo) / Input Force (Fi)
Machine's Efficiency (formula)
(Work Output / Work Input) x 100 (as a %)
Remember: No machine is ...
100% or more efficient.
Simple Machines Make Our Work Easier by (2)
1. reduces our amount of force by changing the direction of our force
2. multiplies our force
6 Types of Simple Machines
1. Lever
2. Wheel and Axle
3. Screw
4. Inclined Plane
5. Pulley
6. Wedge
Lever Types
1st class
2nd class
3rd class
Three parts of a Lever
Fulcrum (F)
Resistance (R)
Effort (E)
Example of the 1st class lever
seesaw
Example of the 2nd class lever
wheel barrow
Example of the 3rd class lever
tweezers
Example of the wheel and axle
bike tire
Example of the inclined plane
ramp
Example of the wedge
ax
Example of the pulley
flagpole
Example of the screw
jar top or wine bottle opener
Work (in work triangle)
1
Joule - Work Unit (in work triangle)
2
Force (in triangle)
3
Newton - Force Unit (in triangle)
4
Distance (in triangle)
5
Meters - Distance Unit (in triangle)
6
Joule - Work (in power triangle)
1
Work Unit (in power triangle)
2
Seconds - Time Unit (in triangle)
4
Time (in triangle)
3
Power (in triangle)
5
Watt - Power Unit (in triangle)
6
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