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Arts and Humanities
human relations chapter 7
Terms in this set (55)
is the process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of objectives....
The essence of leadership in organizations is influencing and facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish objectives.1 Leadership is about people and relationships
.2 Your leadership style is based on your behavior, which in turn affects your human relations. An autocratic leadership style in which you just tell employees what to do, versus being a participative leader and including employees in the management process, clearly results in different behavior and human relations. The differences will be explained in more detail throughout the chapter.
Leadership and management are not the same
Management and leadership are related but different concepts.
Leadership is one of the five management functions (planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling)
and leadership is critical to management success
employees do influence other employees
The informal leader, an employee group member who takes charge, voices issues, and initiates change,10 is a case in point.
It is often critical to management success
Theory and Application of leadership
leadership is a topic of great interest to researchers and practitioners alike, as it is a key issue to both.
The three schools of leadership
Trait, behavioral, contingency
studying leadership began
Leadership Trait Theory
assumes that there are distinctive physical and psychological characteristics accounting for leadership effectiveness
Analyzed traits or qualities such as
appearance, aggressiveness, self-reliance, persuasiveness, and dominance in an effort to identify a set of traits that all successful leaders possess.
The list of traits was to be used as a prerequisite for the promotion of candidates to leadership positions. Only candidates possessing all the identified traits were to be given leadership positions.
Edwin Ghiselli trait theory
The most publicized trait theory study
1) supervisory ability, (you will develop these skills in this course);
(2) need for occupational achievement;
(3) intelligence; (
(5) self-assurance; and
behavioral leadership theories
assume that there are distinctive styles that effective leaders use consistently; that is, that good leadership is rooted in behavior.
1945 Ohio State University
Began a study to determine effective leadership styles
LBDQ Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire
(Structuring consideration Styles) Initiating Structure
The extent to which the leader takes charge to plan, organize, direct, and control as the employee performs the task
(Structuring consideration Styles) Consideration
The extent to which the leader communicates to develop trust, friendship, support, and respect
Job Centered and Employee Centered Styles
University of Michigan identitified
Job Centered_ This is the same as initiating structure
Employee centered- this is the same as consideration
Developed the Managerial Grid
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton
Based on the two leadership dimensions called concern for production and concern for people.
Blake and Moutons model indentifying the ideal leadership style as having a high concern for both production and people
This leader has low concern for both production and people. The leader does the minimum required.
The sweatshop manager
This leader has a high concern for production and a low concern for people. The leader uses position power to coerce employees to do the wor
The country club manager
This leader has a high concern for people and a low concern for production. The leader strives to maintain good relations.
THe organized person manager
This leader has balanced, medium concern for both production and people.
The team manager
This leader has a high concern for both production and people. This leader strives for maximum performance and employee satisfaction
Transformational leadership, a contemporary view of leadership, is a behavioral theory because it focuses on the behavior of successful leaders.25 Transformational leadership is about change, innovation, and entrepreneurship. Clearly, Steve Jobs was a transformational leader.
Transformational leaders also can be charismatic leaders. Although charisma is not needed to lead, it can help. Charismatic leaders have the ability to engage employees by energizing them to meet challenging objectives,26 and inspiring them to greatness.27 Martin Luther King Jr. and Mother Teresa are considered to have been charismatic. Steve Jobs was charismatic, and he was even called a Pied Piper.
Transformational leadership has been contrasted with transactional leadership. The transaction is based on the behavioral strategy28 of "you do this work for me and I'll give this reward to you."
Servants and stewardship
Stewardship theory states that leaders should be servants of the organization. Stewards live the values such as honesty, altruism, and courage29 and treat employees well.3
The theory that assumes that there are distinctive physical and psychological characteristics accounting for leadership effectiveness.
Both the trait and behavioral leadership theories were attempts to find the one best leadership style in all situations
Contingency leadership theories (Fred Fiedler's)
assume that the appropriate leadership style varies from situation to situation.
Developed by Fiedler, is used to determine whether a person's leadership style is task or relationship oriented and if the situation matches the leaders style.
If there is no match, Fiedler recommends that the leader change the situation, rather than the leadership style.
Contingency theory is based on the two dimensional behaviors
Refers to the degree to which a situation enables the leader to exert influence over the followers.. The more favorable the situation, the more power the leader has.
(3) questions to determine whether the task or relationship leadership is appropriate, pertaining to situational favorness
1. Are leader member relations good or poor?
2. Is the task structured or unstructured?
3. Is position power strong or weak
The degree to which a situation enables the leader to exert influence over the followers is known as situational favorableness.
The three variables in importance
Leader-member relations. Is the relationship good or poor? The better the relations, the more favorable the situation.
Task structure. Is the task structured or unstructured? Do employees perform routine, unambiguous, standard tasks? The more structured the jobs are, the more favorable the situation.
Position power. Is position power strong or weak? The more power, the more favorable the situation.
Identifies seven leadership styles based on the use of boss centered versus employee centered leadership
Based on Ohio State two dimensional leadership styes
Directive behavior- you focus on directing and controlling behavior to endure that the task gets done. Tell employees what the task is and when, where, and how to do it, and oversees performance.
supportive behavior- You focus on encouraging and motivating behavior. Explains things and listens to employee views, helping employees make their own decisions.
In other words, when a supervisor interacts with employees, the focus can be on directing (getting the task done), supporting (developing relationships), or both
Two distinct aspects of capability
Ability- Do the employees have the experience, education, skills, and so on to do the task without direction.
Motivation- Do the employees want to do the task, will they perform the task without encouragement and support
Low (C-1). The employees can't do the task without detailed directions and close supervision. Employees in this category may have the ability to do the task, but they lack the motivation to perform without close supervision.
Moderate (C-2). The employees have moderate ability and need specific direction and support to get the job done properly. The employees may be highly motivated but still need direction, support, and encouragement.
High (C-3). The employees are high in ability but may lack the confidence to do the job. What they need most is support and encouragement to motivate them to get the task done.
Outstanding (C-4). The employees are capable of doing the task without direction or support.
Involves high directive low supportive behavior. You give very detailed instructions, describing exactly what the task is and when where and how to perform it. closely oversees performance. The supportive style is largely absent. you make decisions without input of employees
Involves high directive high supportive behavior and is appropriate when interacting with moderate capability employees. You give specific instructions, overseeing performance. at the same time you would support the employees by explaining why the task should be performed as requested and answering their questions
Laissez Faire style
entails low directive low supportive behavior and appropriate when interacting with outstanding employees. You merely inform employees about what needs to be done. You answer their questions but provide little, if any directions. These employees are highly motivated and need little , if any support, you allow these employees t make their own decision subject to limitations although approval will not be necessary.
Robert tannenbaum and warren schmidt
state that leadership behavior is on a continuum from boss-centered to employee-centered leadership. Their model focuses on who makes the decisions. They identify seven major styles the leader can choose from. Exhibit 7.4 is an adaptation of their model, which lists the seven styles.35 The leadership continuum, developed by Tannenbaum and Schmidt, identifies seven leadership styles based on the use of boss-centered versus employee-centered leadership.
Before selecting one of the seven leadership styles, the user must consider the following three factors, or variables:
The manager. What is the leader's preferred style, based on experience and confidence in the subordinates?
The subordinates. What is the subordinates' preferred style for the leader?
The situation. What are the environmental considerations, such as the organization's size, structure, goals, and technology
Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton
attempted to bridge the gap between leadership theory and managerial practice. To do so, they developed a model that tells the manager which leadership style to use in a given situation. Normative leadership theory, developed by Vroom and Yetton, is a decision-tree model that enables the user to select from five leadership styles the one that is appropriate for the situation.
Leadership Style- Delegate. Decide. Facilitate. Consult group. Consult individually
In 2000 Victor Vroom published a revised version of this normative leadership model with the title Leadership and the Decision Making Process.36 Vroom identified five leadership styles based on the level of participation in the decision by the followers. Here is Vroom's latest version of the five leadership styles:
eveloped by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard, is a model for selecting from four leadership styles the one that matches the employees' maturity level in a given situation. For the most part, situational leadership37 takes the two-dimensional leadership styles and the four quadrants (see Exhibit 7.1), and develops four leadership styles, which Hersey and Blanchard call telling (lower-right quadrant—high task, low relationship); selling (upper-right quadrant—high task, high relationship); participating (upper-left quadrant—high relationship, low task); and delegating (lower-left quadrant—low relationship, low task).
Hersey and Blanchard
Hersey and Blanchard went beyond the behavioral theory by developing a model that tells the leader which style to use in a given situation. To determine the leadership style, one determines the followers' maturity level. If it is low, the leader uses a telling style; if it is moderate to low, the leader uses a selling style; if it is moderate to high, the leader uses the participating style; and if it is high, the leader uses a delegating style.
Developed situational leadership
Global page 219
is the positive expectation that another will not take advantage of you.
Deterrence-based trust. Most new human relations begin with deterrence-based trust because we lack experience dealing with the other person. It is the most fragile since one violation or inconsistency can destroy the human relations. The relationship is based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated. So we try to avoid being untrustworthy; we are on our best behavior when we first meet people.
Page 221Knowledge-based trust. Knowledge-based trust is the most common organizational trust. Trust is based on experience dealing with the other person. The better you know people, the better you can predict their behavior—and trust them.
Identification-based trust. Identification-based trust occurs when there is an emotional connection—friend rather than just coworker. It is the highest level of trust. People look out for each other's best interests and act for the other.
are honest and sincere, and people want to work in a culture of integrity
people use the same behavior in similar situations; they are predictable.
affects leadership style according to their importance
Leader member relations, task structure, position power
Low, moderate, high, outstanding
low-employees lack motivation need supervision
moderate-highly motivated require guidance
high-higly skilled and mostly require support and inspiration
outstanding-capable of performing tasks without guidance or motivation
allow employees to perform the task their way. Low directive high supportive behavior
an attribute of behavioral leadership theories is that they assume
Leadership is determined by how one conducts oneself
assume that there are distinctive styles that effective leaders use consistently
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