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PRAXIS - Reading (Foundational Skills)
Terms in this set (42)
Reid (1988) Three metalinguistic abilities young children acquire through reading activities
1. Word Consciousness
2. Language and Conventions of Print
3. Functions of Print
Generic information stored in the mind
When people read, they utilize four sources of background information to comprehend the meaning behind literal text
1. Word Knowledge
2. Syntax and Contextual Information
3. Semantic Knowledge
4. Text Organization
Information about letters and words
Knowledge of word meanings
Information that is stored in memory that tells us how to represent spoken language in written form.
contains all of the general knowledge about our world that we accumulated throughout our lives. General knowledge such as facts, ideas, meanings, and concepts related to our world are stored here.
Acknowledgement of sounds that are put together to form words
Smallest unit of language. There are 44 of them.
broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language - parts such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes.
Everything before the vowel (onset)
The vowel and everything after it (rime)
Theorist Marilyn Jager Adams outlined five basic types of phonemic awareness tasks:
1. Ability to hear rhymes and alliteration
2. Ability to do oddity tasks (recognize a member of a set that is different among the group)
3. Ability to orally blend words and split syllables
4. Ability to orally segment words
5. Ability to phonics manipulation tasks (ex. replace the "r" sound in rose with a "p" sound)
Process readers use to figure out unfamiliar words based on written patterns
Process of automatically determining the pronunciation and some degree of the meaning of an unknown word
the ability to apply your knowledge of letter-sound relationships, including knowledge of letter patterns, to correctly pronounce written word
using individual sounds to build and write words
Connection between sound and letters on a page
High Frequency Words
The words most often used in the English language
Words the reader learns to read spontaneously, either because of frequency or lack of conformity to orthographic rules
Uses words and illustrations that highlight important features of meaning
Smallest unit in pronunciation
Having one syllable
Open (syllable pattern)
Ends with a single vowel (so, she, spy)
t i / g e r
p a / p e r
Closed (syllable pattern)
Vowel followed by consonant (bad, big, is)
l e s / s o n
h a p /p e n
p up /p y
Vowel Team (syllable pattern)
Two or more letters create one vowel sound (meat, south, plain)
R-controlled (syllable pattern)
Vowel is followed by an /r/ (four, far, bur-ger)
Vowel-silent e / Vowel consonant e (syllable pattern)
First vowel becomes long and the e is silent (fame, ape, pride)
Consonant + le (syllable pattern)
Consonant followed by /le/ (sample, puz-zle, ta-ble)
Automaticity (automatic reading)
Involves the development of strong orthographic representations which allows fast and accurate identification of whole words made up of specific letter patterns
Versification of text - involves such matters as which syllable of a word is accented, intonation and rhythm
English orthography consists of four basic word type
1. Regular; for reading and spelling (cat, print)
2. Regular; for reading but not spelling (float, brain - flote, brane)
3. Rule based (canning - doubling rule; faking - drop e rule)
4. Irregular (beauty)
Reading fluency and comprehension involve three cueing methods
1. Orthographic awareness
2. Semantic cueing
3. Syntactic cueing
Students are actors and they read aloud from a script based on a story they are reading
Why use reader's theater?
-It promotes fluency.
-It helps readers learn to read aloud with expression.
-It helps build reading confidence.
Method in which children reread a short, meaningful passage until a degree of fluency is achieved.
Reading fluency is composed of 3 main components
speed, accuracy, and prosody
Fluent readers read at an appropriate rate of speed for their age or grade level (usually measured in words per minute or wpm). They visually scan 3+ words ahead when reading aloud, and maintain smooth visual tracking line to line.
Fluent readers have highly automatic word recognition, and the skills to sound out unfamiliar words; dysfluent readers make frequent mistakes, have poor word recognition, skip words, substitute similar-appearing words, and struggle with unfamiliar words.
Fluent readers use prosody (pitch, stress, and timing) to convey meaning when they read aloud; dysfluent readers typically use less expression, read word by word instead of in phrases or chunks, and fail to use intonation or pauses to "mark" punctuation (e.g. periods, commas, and question marks).
Approach to teaching in which lessons are goal-oriented and structured by the teacher.
Automaticity refers to a student's ability to
process, decode, and understand written words without effort.
children at the ________ stage rely on the most obvious sounds in words for spelling.
They also experiment with words with which they are most familiar. They often write about personal experiences, and their writing can be understood.
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