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Conflict Management Chapter 4
UCF COM 4462
Terms in this set (37)
Definitions of power
1. Max Weber -"probability of one actor within a social relationship will be in position to carry out his own despite resistance"
2. Thibaut & kelley - 'having behavioral or fate control over behavior of another
3.ability to overcome resistace in influencing another to comply with a request or order
4. power equated with social influence
5. Jerrys difintion- "capacity to overcome resistance in influencing social decisions:
Power & Interdepence
-power directly related to perceived dependence of one party on another
-power reciprical in nature, all parties exert some power, thus interdependent...ie israelis & palestinians, us & al gueda
Perception of Power
-power good or bad
-who has power in conflict
-who misused power
responce to conflict diffent based on different orietations to what power itself consists of and whether it is a positive, negative or benign characteristic
Power Bases & Currencies:
1. French & Ravens classication
2. Rice Model
Power Bases & Currencies: French & Ravens
Bases of Power:
1. Reward power- influence based on ability to bestow benefits
2. Coercive power-inluence based on ability to punish
3. Referent Power-inluce based on attraction and respect
4. Expert power-inluence due to knowledge of the situation and/or useful skill
5. Legitimate Power-influence based on poistion, others obey out of duty
Added by others:
6. Information power-inluence due to access to important information sources (gatekeeping
7. connection power-inluence due to relationships with important people or entities
Power Bases & Currencies: Rice Model
Individual Power Currencies:
1. Resource Control - rewards, punishments, money, et
2. Interpersonal Linkage - gatekeepers, liasons, bridges, informal networks, potential coalitions
3. Communication skills- skills in persuasion, lestening, group leadership, warmness/relationship development, decision making, converstional control.
4. Expertise - special knowledge, skills, talents
Power viewed in terms of relative amount of power between parties, three perspectives:
1.Distributive Power (either/or)
2. Integrative Power (both/and)
3. Designated Power (given)
Relational Power: Distributive
-power to move others against their will
-parties shift to overt focus on power
-typical male view of power: autonomy, asserive, competitive
-Verbal indicators: trying to control me, not letting him push me around, cant boss me around
-rights/interests related to power:rights-guarantees; interests-goals
-distressed system: emphasize power issues/rights rather than interests (
-effective system: power issue de-emphasized interest issue emphasized
Relational Power: intergrative power
-emphazise on harmony/corporation
-method of choice in Japan/Indonesia, Process: affirm each others strengths, no attachks, explore options
-Typical female view: interdepence, nonassertive, empathy, cooperation, harmony
-type of power gained in coalitions or collective actions
Relational Power: Designated Power
-giving power to some other group or entity, ie family, company or relationship
-when people designate powert to a greater entity, they are giving up "power over" or distributive power for the larger good of the interdependent relationship
-unequal power results in: power plays, changing goals, increased communcation
Power imbalances and dynamics
-occurs when one party has greater power than another
-parties will attempt to alter imbalance
-result in destructive conlict spirals
Power Imbalances and Dynamics: High Power
-western world view high power as a goal
-power may corruct, results in: taste for more power, use institution resources for personal enrichment, false feedback of self-worth, devaluing/avoiding less powerful people
Power Imbalances and Dynamic: Low Power
-powerlesness also corrupt:
-Perceptions--each person firmly believes that other person has more power
-see other as high or low power
-conflict escalates by devious/manipulative tactics
-for consturctive conflict management assess power objectively rather than subjectively
-cyclical, degenerative, destructive developes from: denigrating moves by high power, power-balancing moves by low power
-failure to deal with power imbalance usually dissolves relationship
Constructive Power Balancing
-acts of power balancing results in shared or integrative power
-results in constructive spiral of helping each other
Strategies for Balancing Power
-high power doesnt use all currencies
-not used as individual right.
2. Focus on Interdependence
-lower power focus on points of interdepence
-dont focus on individual needs, demands may cause high power to minimize interdependence
3. Calm Resistance
-focus on small, manageable changes
-use careful, calm analysis
-gain nuisance value over time
4. staying actively engaged
-self defeating spiral may develop: person sees self as lowpoer, avoid conflict, desperation builds leading to resignation, breakup, blowup
-get out of self defeating spiral: speak up, present balanced picture, make beliefs, values, needs clear and keep behavior consistent with them, stay emotionally connected, state difference and allow others to do same
currencies valued by high power can be developed by low power if they are allowed to train, have decision making power or more freedeom
-communication about communication
-jointlyy working to preserve relationship
-integrative power not value
-distributive power valued (relational work not real work)
-solving problem more important than preventing problem
-interdependence/self promotion more valued vs helping others
Power in organization comes from:
-importance of dealing with problem
-control over significatnt resouce
-lucky or skilled enough to bring porblems/resources together
-centrally located to work flow
Employee reaction to base of pwer
What is power
The fundamental concept in conflict theory. It is seen as designated, distributive or integrative.
Comes from your position. Power is conferred by the position you hold
Come from your ability to achieve your objective "over the resistane of another". Focuses on power over or against another party.
Comes from joining forces with another to achieve mutually acceptable goals.
Power in order to move others against their will; ti becomes a contest of the wills.
Relational theory of power
Power is the property of the social relationship rather than a quality of the individual.
Depends on how much your particular resources are valued by the other persons in a relationship context. Depends on having skills that other people need.
Resource control. Interpersonal linkages. Communication skills. Expertise.
R.I.C.E. - Resource Control
Often comes with one's formal position in an organization or group.
R.I.C.E. - Interpersonal linkages
your position in the larger system, such as being central to the communication exchange.
R.I.C.E. - Communication skills
Conversational skills, persuasive ability, listening skills, group leadership skills, the ability to communicate caring and warmth, and the ability to form close bonds with others.
R.I.C.E. - Expertise
Special knowledge, skills, and talents that are useful for the task at hand.
Often the goal that people seek.
Constant high power problem
may eat into one's view of self and other, forming a perceptual distortion that may take on monstrous proportions.
Too much losing does not build character, it builds fustration.
Low power problem
if people are continually subjected to harsh treatment or lack of goal attainment, they are likely to produce some organized resistance to the high-power people.
when high-power groups or individuals purposely enhance the power of lower-power groups or individuals.
focuses the parties on the process of their communication with each other.
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 11: Power and Political Behavior
Leadership Theories: Power and Leadership
ADMN 575: Quiz 13
OB Chapter 13