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Praxis II Teaching Reading 5024
Teaching Reading Praxis II Reading 5024
Terms in this set (77)
An attachment to the end or beginning of base or root word. A generic term that describes prefixes and suffixes.
The repetition of initial phoneme either across syllables or across words. For example, "Happy hippos hop on Harry." See onset
Understanding that spoken words are decomposed into phonemes, and that the letters in written words represent the phonemes in spoken words when spoken words are represented in text.
Using data to determine abilities and knowledge about a particular topic. A distinction should be drawn between a test, which is just a tool used in assessment, and assessment.
An approach to reading instruction that strikes a compromise between Phonics approaches and Whole Language approaches -- ideally, the most effective strategies are drawn from the two approaches and synthesized together.
A kind of book that is used to teach reading. It is based on an approach in which words are used as a whole. The words are used over and over in each succeeding lesson. New words are added regularly.
whole representation of the word. For example, /p/ /oo/ /l/ can be blended together to form the word POOL.
A language element with wordlike status or form that resembles a word. A clitic usually cannot be used on its own as a word in a construction. Clitics are usually phonologically bound to a preceding word or a following word.
Words that are related to each other by virtue of being derived from a common origin (e.g., 'decisive' and 'decision').
Criterion Referenced Assessment
This is a type of assessment in which a child's score is compared against a predetermined criterion score to determine if the child is performing acceptably or unacceptably. Rather than comparing the child's performance against the performance of her peers (as would be the case with a norm-referenced assessment), the criterion or "acceptable score" is set by the author of the assessment. Each child's score, then, is either above or below the criterion score.
Using knowledge about graphophonemic relationships to sound-out regular words. Some argue this is accomplished through a process known as "reading by analogy."
Texts which do not contain irregular words. Also, these texts are usually designed to reinforce certain "rules" that have previously been taught in phonics lessons.
Using knowledge of the conventions of spelling-sound relationships and knowledge about pronunciation of irregular words to derive a pronunciation of written words.
A group of two successive letters whose phonetic value is a single sound. For example, EA in BREAD, CH in CHAT, or NG in SING
Two vowels that make one sound
An activity where a skilled reader sits next to a learner and the two read a text simultaneously.
The skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are developmental precursors to conventional forms of reading and writing.
The origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning
Text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic. Contrast with narrative text.
Phonics taught as a supplemental learning aid rather than as an integral part of the program of reading instruction, often in separate workbooks during special time periods.
Fast, smooth, effortless and automatic reading of text (can be silent reading or not) with attention focused on the meaning of the text.
Five Components of Reading
Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
shared instructional needs and abilities and regrouping as their instructional needs change. Group size and allocated instructional time may vary among groups.
Frustrational Reading Level
The level at which a reader reads at less than a 90% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 10 words read). Frustration level text is difficult text for the reader.
The ability to use a learned skill in novel situations.
A unit (a letter or letters) representing a sound.
The relationship between letters and phonemes.
Words that are spelled the same but have different origins and meanings. They may or may not be pronounced the same (e.g., can as in a metal container/can as in able to).
Words that sound the same but are spelled differently (e.g., cents/sense, knight/night).
Words that may or may not be spelled alike but are pronounced the same. These words are of different origins and have different meanings (e.g., ate and eight; scale as in the covering of a fish; and scale as in a device used to weigh things)
The ability to read above level but understand spoken words below level.
Independent Reading Level
The level at which a reader can read text with 95% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 20 words read). Independent reading level is relatively easy text for the reader.
Instructional Reading Level Range
The reading range that spans instructional and independent reading levels or level of text that a student can read with 90% to 95% or above accuracy.
A phrase, construction, or expression that is understood in a given language. This expression has a meaning that differs from typical syntactic patterns or that differs from the literal meaning of its parts taken together.
Something which is present but invisible, or inactive but capable of becoming active or visible, so a child may have latent knowledge of a concept, meaning the child understands the concept, but has not had an opportunity to demonstrate that understanding.
Refers to the words or the vocabulary of a language as distinguished from its grammar and construction.
Often called the "mental dictionary," the lexicon is a representation of all knowledge a person has about individual words.
An approach to reading instruction that emphasized memorization of whole words. Graded word lists were used to teach children to memorize words as wholes, and every year, children added to their repertoire of "familiar" words.
An awareness of one's own thinking processes and how they work. The process of consciously thinking about one's learning or reading while actually being engaged in learning or reading. Metacognitive strategies can be taught to students; good readers use metacognitive strategies to think about and have control over their reading.
The smallest meaningful unit of speech.
An analysis of words formed by adding prefixes, suffixes or other meaningful word units to a base word.
An examination of the morphemic structure of words; an appreciation of the fact that words with common roots share common meanings, and that affixes change words in predictable and consistent ways.
Text which conveys a story or which relates events or dialog. Contrast with expository text.
Norm Reference Assessment
This is a type of assessment that allows an individual child's score to be compared against the scores of other children who have previously taken the same assessment. With a norm-referenced assessment, the child's raw score can be converted into a comparative score such as a percentile rank or a stanine.
The formation of a word by imitating the natural sound associated with the object or action. For example, the "crack" of the bat, or the "twang" of the guitar strings.
The part of the syllable that precedes the vowel of a syllable. In the case of multi-syllabic words, each syllable has an onset.
The representation of the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols.
A writing system for representing language.
Attention to various phonetic elements of words. Phonics: The study of the relationships between letters and the sounds they represent; also used to describe reading instruction that teaches sound-symbol correspondences.
A succession of letters that represent the same phonological unit in different words, such as "igh" in flight, might, tight, sigh, and high.
the smallest unit of speech
A subset of phonological awareness; the knowledge that spoken words consist of a sequence of individual sounds, and the understanding that phonemes are rearranged and substituted to create new words. There are a finite set of phonemes which are arranged and rearranged to create an infinite set of spoken words.
A system that uses a unique symbol to represent each phone (sound) of the language or dialect, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
An approach to reading instruction that emphasizes letter-sound relationships and generalized principles that describe spelling-sound relationships in a language
The ability to HEAR, manipulate, and identify sounds of SPOKEN words. (phonological awareness at this level is usually described as phoneme awareness).
Reading with expression, proper intonation, and phrasing. This helps readers to sound as if they are speaking the part they are reading. It is also this element of fluency that sets it apart from automaticity.
Sharing identical or at least similar medial and final phonemes in the final syllable.
The part of a syllable (not a word) which consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it. Contrast with onset.
Refers to the support that is given to students in order for them to arrive at the correct answer. This support may occur as immediate, specific feedback that a teacher offers during student practice. Providing the student temporary instructional support assists them in achieving what they could not otherwise have done alone.
Refers to prior knowledge, the knowledge and experience that readers bring to the text.
Breaking down a spoken word into word parts by inserting a pause between each part. Words can be segmented at the word level (in the case of compound words), at the syllable level, at the onset-rime level, and at the phoneme level.
The study of the development and changes of the MEANINGS of speech forms. Semantics is also a study of the process by which meaning is derived from symbols, signs, text, and other meaning-bearing forms.
Portray the schematic relations that compose a concept; a strategy for graphically representing concepts.
The general structure of stories that includes story elements.
A procedure for teaching students to read words formed with prefixes, suffixes, or other meaningful word parts.
The structure of a sentence...grammar.
Are specifically addressed, analyzed, and/or studied in curriculum lessons, exercises, and independent activities.
The various patterns of ideas that are embedded in the organization of text (e.g., cause-effect, comparison-contrast, story grammar).
During shared read aloud, teachers reveal their thinking processes by verbalizing: connections, questions, inferences, and predictions.
Student reads appropriate text with a predetermined number of words to be read within a specific amount of time.
A book intended for general reading that is not a textbook.
Vowel Digraph or Vowel Pair
Two vowels together that represent one phoneme, or sound (e.g., ea, ai, oa).
Group of words that share a rime (a vowel plus the consonants that follow; e.g., -ame, -ick,-out).
Word Learning Stategies
Strategies students use to learn words such as: decoding, analyzing meaningful parts of words, using analogy, using context clues, using a dictionary (student friendly definitions), glossary, or other resources.
Letters, onsets, rimes, syllables that, when combined, result in words. The ability to recognize various word parts in multisyllabic words is beneficial in decoding unfamiliar words.
The act of deliberately investigating words (e.g., vocabulary-building exercises, word-identification practice, and spelling).
Words that a student might use while writing.
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