40 terms

Unit 3 Notecards

76. "Republican Motherhood"
Date: 1654-1920
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: It centered on the belief that the patriots' daughters should be raised to uphold the ideals of republicanism, in order to pass on republican values to the next generation. Republican motherhood meant civic duty.
Significance: Republican mothers were believed to be essential for the upbringing of virtuous men that a republic called for. This belief helped women gain higher literacy rates.
77. Articles of Confederation
Date: 1776-1781
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution
Significance: The Articles did not provide America with a solid national government that could govern effectively due to the fact that no essential powers were given to it. Eventually, many became aware of the fact in order to govern strongly, they must have a strong national government, refusing the belief that all men were born with civic virtue.
78. Shay's Rebellion
Date: 1786-87
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in central and western Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787. The rebellion was named after Daniel Shays, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and one of the rebel leaders.
Significance: Shay's Rebellion highlighted the need for a revision of the Articles of Confederation because people were finally becoming aware of the fact that the weak national government would implode America.
79. Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan
Date: 1787
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: Both plans called for a legislature, however, on plan favored larger states (Virginia) and one smaller states (New Jersey). The Virginia plan was basically based on the principle of proportional representation, which would essentially screw over the smaller states. Whereas the NJ plan was based around the principle that all states should have an equal vote, regardless of size.
Significance: I guess the only significance to be found here is that sectionalism is kind of highlighted, and that this disagreement eventually gave way for the Great Compromise.
80. Connecticut/Great Compromise
Date: 1787
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: Called for a bicameral legislature, calling for an upper house that would have equal votes for all states (Senate) and a lower house based of proportional representation (House), thus finding middle ground for large and small states.
Significance: By finding middle ground, both large and small states were able to benefit from the Great Compromise and have an equal voice in Congress
81. Electoral College
Date: 1787
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: Basically, the founders believed that constituents couldn't make good voting decisions because they were too far removed from politicians to actually vote correctly. Therefore, the Electoral College was created based on the reasoning that politicians close to other politicians were more apt to make smart choices.
Significance: The Electoral College did benefit the nation while it was still young because the electors were able to make smart choices because they were the ones that were the closest to the candidates and could therefore make the best decisions.
82. Anti-Federalists vs. Federalists
Date: 1787 and onward
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: The tension between these two groups was based solely in the fact that Anti-Feds were worried about an encroaching government and demanded a BOR whereas the Feds favored a strong national government.
Significance: The Anti-Feds fought so ardently for a BOR, that one was put into the Constitution after ratification, which ensures and safeguards our natural rights from the powers of the government.
83. The Federalist Papers
Date: 1787
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: Essays that prominent leaders of the Federalists wrote advocating for the ratification of the Constitution (Jay, Hamilton, Madison)
Significance: The Federalist Papers were widely circulated throughout the states, thus the ideas in them were spread around. Also, the arguments made in the Federalist papers still hold sway today on to why the government as it is cannot overstep its authority onto our natural rights.
84. Bill of Rights
Date: 1787
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: The first 10 Amendment to the Constitution that safeguard out natural rights from encroaching government.
Significance: The BOR still safeguard our rights from an encroaching government.
85. "Landed vs. 'Landless" states
Date: 18th Century
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: Landed states were the states that were granted extraneous lands by royal charters. Landless states were states that did not receive more land through royal charter, thus keeping the small states small and evermore increasing the size of the already politically powerful states.
Significance: During the constitutional convention, landed states advocated for proportional representation, whilst landless states advocated for equal votes for all states.
86. Land Ordinance of 1785
Date: 1785
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: Proclamation on which the survey lines for farms in the new states were created and also decreased the amount of land someone had to buy.
Significance: Because the land requirement was reduced, westward expansion was encouraged and many people were motivated to move out west
87. Northwest Ordinance
Date: 1780s
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: Established an official way for new states to enter the Union, at this time especially the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa
Significance: The NW Ordinance also guaranteed certain rights in the new states, such as trial by peers.
88. Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
Date: 1786
Historical Period: The Critical Period
Definition: between the United States and Spain guaranteed Spain's exclusive right to navigate the Mississippi River for 20 years. It also opened Spain's European and West Indian seaports to American shipping. However, the Treaty was not ratified under the Articles of Confederation.
Significance: This political blunder heightened sectionalist tensions between the east and west because only the east was benefitted from this treaty.
89. John Marshall
Date: 1755-1835
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: His court opinions helped lay the basis for United States constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches. Previously, Marshall had been a leader of the Federalist Party in Virginia and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1799 to 1800
Significance: Marshall's court decision in Marbury v. Madison greatly expanded the power of the judiciary because it gave the Supreme Court the power of Judicial Review, thus instituting broad constructionism.
90. Marbury v. Madison and judicial review
Date: 1803
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. The landmark decision helped define the boundary between the constitutionally separate executive and judicial branches of the American form of government
Significance: Before Marbury v. Madison, the judiciary branch had relatively little influence. But with the establishment of Judicial Review, the Judiciary was able to assume more power than was enumerated.
91. Funding and Assumption
Date: 1790
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: Hamilton's economic plan to restore the credit of the United states by the selling of bonds and the establishment of the First Bank of the United States.
Significance: Funding and assumption only really benefitted the commercially centered economies, thus political parties are created. Also, the establishment of the bank raised a few questions about the specifically delegated powers of the government by the Constitution.
92. First Bank of the United States
Date: 1790s
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: Establishment of the Bank was included in a three-part expansion of federal fiscal and monetary power (along with a federal mint and excise taxes) championed by Alexander Hamilton, first Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton believed a national bank was necessary to stabilize and improve the nation's credit, and to improve handling of the financial business of the United States government under the newly enacted Constitution.
Significance: In creating a national bank, which was not one of the powers specifically delegated in the Constitution, Hamilton made use of the Necessary and Proper Clause, claiming that the government had implied powers that would help the government to exercise its enumerated powers.
93. Whiskey Rebellion
Date: 1791
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition:Whiskey Insurrection, was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. Farmers who used their leftover grain and corn in the form of whiskey as a medium of exchange were forced to pay a new tax.
Significance: Because Washington had responded so strongly with an army of 13,000 men, met with no formal rebellion, many people wondered to the extreme the government had the power to exercise its powers.
94. Pinckney's Treaty
Date: 1796
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition:established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
Significance: Because water was the most inexpensive form of shipping, access to the Mississippi River was vital to the economies of the backcountries that needed the River to ship goods.
95. Jay's Treaty
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition:a treaty between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Great Britain that is credited with averting war,[3] resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the American Revolution,[4] and facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.
Significance:The treaty gained the primary American goals, which included the withdrawal of British Army units from pre-Revolutionary forts that it had failed to relinquish in the Northwest Territory of the United States (the area west of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio River).
96. Alien and Sedition Acts
Date: 1798-1802
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress in the aftermath of the French Revolution and during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the Quasi-War. They were signed into law by President John Adams. The Sedition Act and the Alien Friends Act were allowed to expire in 1800 and 1801, respectively. The Naturalization Act was repealed in 1802.
Significance: The Alien and Sedition Acts instigated questions over the extent/type of speech is protected under the first amendment. The general consensus was that the First amendment did not protect against libel, but protected against petty criticism of government officials.
97. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Date: 1798-99
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution. In doing so, they argued for states' rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution
Significance: The resolutions technically have the power to pronounce certain federal laws, in this case the Alien and Sedition Acts, to be null and void because they contradict the principles of the 1st Amendment.
98. Election of 1800
Date: 1800
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: 4th presidential election in which Jefferson won.
Significance: Because the party in charge shifted from the Federalists to the Republicans, Jefferson referred to the election as 'The Revolution of 1800.' The transition was peaceful, thus astounding political scientists around the world, for whenever the balance of power has shifted elsewhere, there was always some sort of physical insurrection.
99. French Revolution
Date: 1789-99
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a fundamental impact on French history and on modern history worldwide.Experiencing an economic crisis exacerbated by the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the common people of France became increasingly frustrated by the ineptitude of King Louis XVI and the continued decadence of the aristocracy
Significance: American politics were highly influenced by the French revolution, with the Jeffersonians ardently admiring the French revolutionaries (except during the Reign of Terror) and the Federalists supporting it, but not as dramatically.
100. Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality
Date: 1793
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: a formal announcement issued by United States President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the nation neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any country at war.
Significance: The Neutrality Act more or less shaped American foreign policy up until WWI--Isolationist.
101. Embargo of 1807
Date: 1807
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition:general embargo enacted by the United States Congress against Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars.
The embargo was imposed in response to violations of U.S. neutrality, in which American merchantmen and their cargo were seized as contraband of war by the European navies. The British Royal Navy, in particular, resorted to impressment, forcing thousands of American seamen into service on their warships. Great Britain and France, engaged in a struggle for control of Europe, rationalized the plunder of U.S. shipping as incidental to war and necessary for their survival
Significance: The Embargo Act was a great miscalculation on the part of Jefferson--France and GB were not as dependent upon American trade as was originally thought. Thus, New England's commercial economy was slammed.
102. XYZ Affair
Date: 1797-98
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving the United States and Republican France. Its name derives from the substitution of the letters X, Y and Z for the names of French diplomats in documents released by the Adams administration.
Significance: Because the French demanded a bribe before negotiations could be made about ending the quasi-naval war, many Americans were outraged.
103. Louisiana Purchase
Date: 1803
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: the acquisition by the United States of America in 1803 of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km2) of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana.
Significance: The Louisiana Purchase greatly expanded the amount of fertile land that the already densely packed, overpopulated country required. It also made the dream of expanding westward to the point of Pacific access more of a reality (even though they hadn't gotten Oregon yet)
104. Lewis and Clark
Date: 1804-1806
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States, departing in May, 1804 from St. Louis on the Mississippi River, making their way westward through the continental divide to the Pacific coast.
Significance: Lewis and Clark made several useful observations about the land acquired through the Louisiana Purchase, among their most important contributions was the map they made covering the area the Purchase covered--it was very accurate.
105. Treaty of Ghent
Date: 1814-15
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom.
Significance: it restored the borders of the two countries to the line before the commencement of hostilities. It also more or less disbanded the advocators of the Hartford Convention.
106. Orders in Council
Date: 1807
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: required any ship trading with France or its satellites to put in 1st and a British port, pay a duty, and get a license.
Significance: Basically made America's policy of neutrality during the war impossible because under neutral rights, America had the ability to trade with both countries, but the Orders in Council more or less disregarded that right.
107. Causes of War of 1812
Date: Before 1812
Historical Period: The Early Republic
Definition: British impressment of soldiers and the overall opinion that the British did not accept the verdict of the American Revolutionary War.
Significance: um I guess these factors just made the Americans mad enough to want to go to war with Britain?
108. Hartford Convention
Date: 1814-15
Historical Period: The Era of Good Feelings
Definition: in which New England Federalists met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power. Despite radical outcries among Federalists for New England secession and a separate peace with Great Britain, moderates outnumbered them and extreme proposals were not a major focus of the debate.
Significance: The advocators of the Hartford Convention were not all that significant purely because when they went to go and make their case before Congress, the Treaty of Ghent was signed, that ended the hostilities of the War of 1812
109. Young Republicans
Historical Period: The Era of Good Feelings
Definition: AKA War Hawks; young republicans who were more or less replacing the founding generation in Congress and were fervent Jeffersonians who basically wanted to wage war and encourage Republican philosophies at whatever cost.
Significance: They dreamed of an empire of liberty, delighting in western expansion as the means to preserve a nation of small farmers
110. Era of Good Feelings
Date: 1817-25
Historical Period: The Era of Good Feelings
Definition: a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars
Significance: The era saw the collapse of the Federalist Party and an end to the bitter partisan disputes between it and the dominant Democratic-Republican Party during the First Party System
111. Tecumseh
Historical Period: The Era of Good Feelings
Definition: a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy (known as Tecumseh's Confederacy) which opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812
Significance: His failed Pan-Indian movement only further encouraged Indians to renounce their old ways and to assimilate into white culture by becoming farmers etc.
112. Monroe Doctrine
Date: 1823
Historical Period: The Era of Good Feelings
Definition: It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention. At the same time, the doctrine noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries
Significance: The Monroe Doctrine reaffirmed the validity of America and several Latin American countries to be independent from Europe, thus the countries are now recognized as independent states and are now respected on the world stage.
113. Missouri Compromise
Date: 1820
Historical Period: The Era of Good Feelings
Definition: between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
Significance: The Missouri Compromise inadvertently heightened sectionalist tensions on the basis of slavery, thus paving the way for hmmmm I don't know the American Civil War.
114. Second Great Awakening
Date: 1790-1820
Historical Period: The Era of Good Feelings
Definition: a Protestant revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800, and after 1820 membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement. It was past its peak by the 1840s. It has been described as a reaction against skepticism, deism, and rational Christianity, although why those forces became pressing enough at the time to spark revivals is not fully understood.
Significance: Protestantism, as well as the Pan-Indian Movement, may have lead to increased tensions between the white settlers and the Indian groups
115. Transcontinental Treaty/Adams-Onis Treaty
Date: 1819
Historical Period: The Era of Good Feelings
Definition: a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain (now Mexico).
Significance: It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy. It came in the midst of increasing tensions related to Spain's territorial boundaries in North America vs. the United States and United Kingdom in the aftermath of the American Revolution; and also, during a period of weakening in Spanish power.