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H Bib Midterm
Terms in this set (116)
1. 587 BCE
The destruction of the First Temple by the Babylonians and exile of the Jews.
2. 70 CE
The destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans
3. Year 0
Does not exist in BC/AD or BCE/CE designation;
4. Apocrypha, apocryphal books
Books put in King James Bible between the Old and New Testaments, Jewish Bibles do not have apocrypha/apocryphal books
5. What are the three parts of the Jewish Bible?
Torah, Ketuvim, Nevi'im
6. What are the four parts of the Christian Old Testament?
Law; History; Poetry/Hymns; Prophecy
First five books of the Bible, believed to be written by Moses, in Jewish tradition the most important books of the Bible
literally means instruction, what ancient Jews+ancient/modern Christians called the Law, in Jewish tradition the most important books of the Bible
9. How many books in the Hebrew Bible?
something held as an established opinion; especially: a definite authoritative tenet, for Maimonedes, 13 principles of faith (at least first five) weren't dogmas, could be proved rationally
belief-that propositions, Maimonides turned Judaism from a non-credal religion into a creed, most famous/import creed Creed of Nicaea
12. Holy Spirit
Explained by Creed of Constantinople 381 CE, Holy Spirit is how God communicates with Prophets and Church
13. The Chosen People
The special relationship of Israel with God, coming from the covenant with Abraham; has been understood in many different ways. Usually understood not as privilege but as an obligation.
Goal/focus of Judaism (as opposed to the Christian focus on salvation); Belief that every moment is an opportunity to serve god.
Focus of Christianity (as opposed to Jewish focus on sanctification), idea of triumph over death/eternal life
Jewish rabbi of the 12th century, reinterpreted Judaism as a series of Truth claims (belief that statements), wrote 13 articles of faith
Mid-2nd century thinking who argued that God of the Bible is not the God of Jesus/Christianity, deemed heretic
Led Israelites out of Egypt, was given Torah on Mt. Sinai, believed that he received both an oral and a written Torah
19. Nicene Creed
Most famous/important creed promulgated by the church council of Nicaea in 325 CE, Sunday worship service still includes recitation of creed; states that "We believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible"
20. Oral Torah
Idea/theory/belief that when the Israelites received the Torah from God, they received both a written an oral Torah; spells out the details that the Torah briefly gives regarding commandments
Apostle who converted from Judaism to Christanity; wrote epistles in the early/mid 50s such as the corinthians/romans to help establish churches, shaped Christianity such as through his beliefs on food laws
22. Second Temple Period
Lasted between approx 500 BCE-70 CE; saw the emergence of the Torah book, synagogues in Egypt, arrival of Romans, and Jesus; in 70 CE ended by destruction of second temple by Romans
23. Thirteen Principles of Judaism
Written by rabbi Maimonides (12th century rabbi), it is a series of core statements about what someone needs to believe in order to truly be a Jew. They're not unlike in format the Christian creeds.
Father, Son, Holy Ghost in Christian religion. Eastern Churches say that as Jesus is begotten of the father alone, the Holy SPirit processes from Father alone; Western view subordinates Holy Ghost to other two; idea not used until 3rd century
25. God the Father, God the Son
as defined in the Nicene Creed, God the father sent his only begotten son, yet these are in one. The Arians said Jesus was not divine, and the Council of Nicea was held (in part) to refute the this notion.
Doctrine of incarnation that Jesus was made of flesh.
Idea that Jesus, after suffering on a cross, died and then rose again the third day after his death. Ascended to heaven 40 days after resurrection
Jesus ascended into heaven 40 days after resurrection; depicted by Gospels/acts
Laws, 10 commandments are particularly famous though the Torah contains many more (Medieval Jews thought the Torah contained 613)
30. New Testament
anthology of books including four gospels, did not emerge until the second century CE; read by Christians, reinterprets much of Old Testament as prophesyzing Jesus (typological)
1. Exegesis, exegete
Critical explanation of scripture; Jewish biblical exegesis focuses on law/ritual and non-legal; Christian exegesis is Christocentric (Christ as key to understanding Hebrew Bible)
2. Typology, Typological Method of Interpretation
Typological exegesis is done by Christians to show that the Old Testament contains archetypes for future redemption; that various events narrated by the bible prefigure/foreshadow Christ/Church; For example, Noah's Ark=cross
3. Allegory, allegorical interpretation
One example of christian exegesis; Treats words and text as metaphors for moral/philosophical truths; the text does not really mean what it appears to mean.
4. Prophetic interpretation, fulfillment
Idea that Jesus' life and death "fulfill" biblical prophecies; true meaning of the passage not evident until Christ's life and death
5. Omnisignificance, omnisignificant
Every word and detail in the Bible has a purpose; context of individual verses can be ignored in their interpretation. This stance is not as strong in Christian exegesis as in Jewish, but both believe that there are no stray details.
Idea that the bible has multiple meanings, all of which are true, since it is revealed by god.
7. The Law
What ancient Jews and ancient/modern Christians called the Torah
8. Philo of Alexandria
Jewish philosopher and scriptural exegete in the first century CE, wrote in Greek, an important figure in the philosophical interpretation of the Torah. Believed in immortality of the soul rather than resurrection of the body.
9. Rabbis, rabbinic
Jewish sage/teacher of Torah; believed in Oral Torah (that the midrash was part of )
10. prophecy; the cessation of prophecy
Idea that prophet no longer delivers the word of god, the text does during interpretation. Emergence of a public authoritative book (the Bible) is a cause/consequence of cessation of prophecy
public authoritative book (the Bible); authoritative books for a community. Not sure how books selected but by the first century CE Jews had a biblical canon
12. modern Biblical scholarship
Assumes bible is a book created like any other, written by normal human beings; is inconsistent because it derives from multiple sources that do not always agree, is to be interpreted in its context, derives whatever authority it may possess from a community of believers
Rabbinic exegesis; commentary on the Tanakh that explains the gaps in bible and believes in divine economy of speech
The first major rabbinic work. It is a book of laws (not biblical exegesis) written after the destruction of the Second Temple, compiled around 200 CE.
non-legal focus of Jewish Biblical exegesis
law/ritual focus of Jewish biblical exegesis
17. You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk
Biblical commandment (appears three times) that later rabbis interpret as the separation of milk and meat in the Jewish food laws.
18. cosmic monism
Idea that the entire cosmos and all that happens within it can be explained by a single idea/principle (God); presented in Bible
19. cosmic dualism
Existence of some force (Devil) antagonistic to God, which currently/temporarily controls the world but which will ultimately be overthrown; more characteristic of Christianity than Judaism in post 70 period
20. When was Jesus active?
c. 30s CE
21. Letter of Barnabas
Explained allegorical nature of Torah law in 130 CE; for example, said prohibition of eating swine meant don't hang out with piggish people
Torah that is translated into Greek in Egypt in the 3rd century BCE
Jewish word for all those who are not Jewish by birth; a synonymous term in many Christian texts Greek. Gentile Christians are ethnic gentiles who believe in Christ, go on to become Christians
2. Jesus as Lord
Christians worship Jesus as Lord/God as Dual; difference between Christianity/Judaism that evolved by 2nd century CE
3. Passion narrative
passion in this case means suffering; referring to the trial and execution of Jesus, portrayed in the gospel
Roman judicial punishment of nailing to Cross, how Jesus died. Crucifixion portrayed in all four gospels
5. Rabbinic Judaism
Greek word that means Lord; after his death, Jesus was called this and then later God
7. commandment, commandments
precepts for the worship of God/practice of righetousness; in Dialogue with Trypho, Justin says some commandments were given in respect to the mystery of Christ/hardness of hearts
8. Jesus movement
Sect or party of Judaism after Jesus' death
rational defense of Christian beleif, Justin Martyr was an apologist who wrote The Dialogue of Trypho
Christian apostle that describes Jesus Movement in his epistles in 50 CE, wrote to churches to establish cohesive sense of christianity
11.Parting of the ways
Jews and Christians (both gentile Christians and Jewish Christians) came to occupy separate social spaces, with separate institutions, political structures, authority figures, and social networks
The department of theological science concerned with death, judgement, heaven and hell; Jesus was an eschatological prophet, announcing that the end of the world was at hand
Main opposition to Jesus in Galilee: Pharisees, scribes, Sadducees
Mark, Matthew, and Luke. In contrast with John, these three gospels are concerned primarily with the life and sayings of Jesus, and have many narratives in common. (NOT John)
A gentile born in Samaria that was perhaps martyred in Rome in the 160s, author of two apologies/important witness to Christianity in the formative phase; author of Dialogue with Trypho the Jew that tries to convince Jews they are wrong
16."His blood be upon us and upon our children"
Matthew 27 after Pilate washes his hands and Jews declare culpability in death of Jesus; 2nd vatican did not question historicity of this statement; but said that Jews of that time didn't have authority to speak on behalf of Jews from later time, therefore Jews today do not share in the blame for the crucifixion
the prefect of Jerusalem known for corruption, condemned Jesus to death
What Pontius Pilate inscribes above cross (Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudorum); Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews
Jesus coming back from the dead; depicted in the gospels/acts but not consistent in their narration of the events
20.Overturning the tables of the moneychangers
Traditional story of why Jesus was condemned, that he claimed that buying and selling in the house of Lord was a transgression against God; this story is told in many different ways in the gospels
21. New Testament
Anthology of books including the four gospels, did not emerge until the last decade of the second century CE
Ideas that Jews killed Christ; a counter tendency in the history of Christianity purported by people such as Justin and Melito, ignore the Romans completely
the circumcision/notion of "covenant" binding god to people; unique to ancient Israel
2. Abram, Abraham
Received circumcision as covenant of god to father nation in genesis; became Abraham, not just Abram; the fact that Abraham was righteous before circumcision used to explain why Christians don't have to circumcise
4. Sign of the covenant
Idea that circumcision is a sign of the covenant as found in Genesis 17; it means that it is a sign for God to see, but Jews and Christians (like Justin) understood this to mean a sign of difference vis-a-vis other people
5. mark of Cain
Idea that circumcision is the hallmark of the patriarchy/paternity; circumcision as a celebration of paternity
7. matrilineal principle
Wife of Abraham, after covenant with God has Isaac. Presents a paradox in that if the covenant is circumcision, then Sarah, and by all extension all Israelite and Jewish women should be excluded, but they are not
Son of Abraham and Sarah; name meaning "laughter" because Sarah laughed after hearing she was going to have a baby at such an old age
son of Abraham and slave Hagar, still has to be circumcised; presents a paradox in that if circumcision is the covenant, then Ishmael, and by extension, all circumcised gentiles should be part of the people but are not
Raped in Genesis 34, brothers say rapist can marry her if they all become circumcised, which they do but the brothers kill all of them; circumcision as sign of tribal mark
Cuts off sons foreskin in Exodus 4 to protect him, but the text presents numerous ambiguities in this case; whose legs did zipporah touch, who is the bridegroom of blood, etc.
Protection against danger, implicit meaning of circumcision as found in Exodus 4 and Exodus 12
Exodus 4= most cryptic story in whole Torah (zipporah); circumcision as an apotropaic sacrifice
Prophet who sees the power of circumcision to protect its bearer from punishment in the after life; has vision of foreskinned kings/armies in Gehenna; doesn't make explicit connection b/w circumcision and hell but text is here.
mysterious zone where shades of dead go, later identified with Gehenna
What westerners would call hell, Ezekiel says that circumcision protects from Gehenna
Surgical procedure where the foreskin is drawn down over the corona to make it look like circumcision hasnt occurred in Roman period after circumcision emerged as a mark of Jewish identity
21. (extreme) hellenizers
22. Circumcision of the heart
Idea presented by Paul in Romans that a Jew is not what you are outwardly, but inwardly; and therefore true circumcision does not rely on flesh; spiritual rather than literal; absolved Christians from their need to be circumcised
23. Spiritual circumcision
Idea presented by Paul that circumcision was spiritual (circumcision of the heart) Rather than literal; Jew is not absed on outside, but inside
24. Bar Kokhba war
Rebellion led against Romans in Judaea, war of 132-135 CE
Christans baptism replaces circumcision, by baptism a Christian receives a spiritual circumcision that is superior the washings prescribed by Jewish law
26. Was Jesus circumcised?
Yes, just like the other Jews of his time.
A diaspora jew active in 50s CE, "the apostle to the gentiles", nominal author of 13 epistles in the Christian New Testament of which at least seven are genuine, believed in circumcision as a sign, no distinctions between Jews and gentiles
28. Allegory, allegorical interpretation
treats words and texts as metaphor, Christian exegesis such as Barnabas/Paul described food laws/circumcision as allegorical
Opposite of profane, idea that God is the source of holiness; numinous and charged state. Certain places (tabernacle, Temple, land of Israel), objects (Appurtenances of the tabernacle and temple, offerings), times (sabbath, festivals), and people (priests, people of Israel) are holy. Protected from impurity; human holiness understood to involve some degree of self-renunciation
Whatever is not holy
3. pure ("clean")
also translated as clean, doesn't have to do with sin/morality but has its own logic. Purification must take place before coming into contact with what is holy
4. impure ("unclean")
Not a moral judgement/moral state in Torah, but quality inherent in some objects and actions (impure animals, woman in childbirth, leprosy, sexual discharge, human corpse), numinous and charged state
5. food sacrificed to idols
prohibition of deriving benefit from food associated with idol worship and by extension idolaters, existed in Early Christianity (acts), but in Corinthians, said you can eat food of the idol because no idol exists but god
system of Jewish food rules, food that may be eaten is Kosher. Examples of the law of Kashrut are: do not boil a kid in its mother milk, which was interpreted to mean don't mix milk and meat, only livestock/no winged things/ land animals that have split hooves and chew cud
Portable tent shrine that the Israelites had in the desert; considered holy
8. Epistle of Barnabas
Gave allegorical explanation of food laws widely followed by later Christian texts; for example, said it's not that moses said don't eat swine, but don't be around men that act piggish
9. sciatic nerve
Food prohibition from Genesis 32 that says Israelites do not eat the hindquarters
10. Council of Jerusalem
the apostolic decree that decides that (as said in act 15): we should not make it difficult for gentiles turning to God, instead just say abstain from food polluted by idols/sexual morality/meat of strangled animals and blood
as stated in Acts 10, saw an angel of God and told him to go to Peter; Peter was told to kill/eat an unclean animal and understood that it is lawful to associate with gentile because nothing god makes is unclean
12. prohibition of blood
Idea blood must be drained from any animal before eating, this prohibition is repeated more often in the Torah than any others; still prohibited in early Christianity
13. commensality -
Literally sharing a table, this refers to the issue of Jews not comingling and sharing food with gentiles.
14. "Thus he pronounced all foods clean.":
Parenthetical statement found in Mark 7 that broadens focus from "impurity" to "prohibited foods"; here "clean" means permitted to be eaten