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The Reformation Period
Terms in this set (64)
Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (c. 1469-1536)
Produced first printed Greek NT; Humanist who established the intellectual foundations of the reformation period. Affirmed regular reading of Scripture by laity, clergy's role as educators, and an inner religion that makes no reference to the rituals, priests, or institutions of the church
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Credited with starting the Protestant Reformation with his 95 Theses. Justification by faith, sola fide, sola scriptura, authority of the bible, spiritual life is a vocation for all; not against clerical marriage
Ninety-Five Theses (date!)
1517; Official beginning of Protestant Reformation
Diet of Worms/Edict of Worms (date!)
1521; A diet is an official assembly of the Roman Empire. Luther was expected to renounce, but instead defended himself. He was declared a heretic and goes into hiding
German Reformation - Lutheranism
Swiss Reformation - Reformed theology/calvinism
Radical Reformation - Zwingli/Anabaptists
English Reformation - Church of England
Catholic Reformation - Counter-reformation
The German Reformation/Lutheran Reformation
Martin Luther protested against the abuses re: indulgences. He challenged emphasis on works and stressed justification by faith. Denied papal authority
scripture alone; primary authority of scripture over Church tradition and papal authority
faith alone; justification by faith
justification by faith
Justification through God's grace, not works. Faith has a personal meaning, concerns trust in the promises of God.
Remission by the church of the worldy penalty due to forgiven sins - immediate cause of the reformation
John Calvin (1509-64)
Established the Holy Commonwealth in Geneva. Emphasis on God's sovereignty, double predestination, spiritual presence re: eucharist and defense of infant baptism.
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Sets out characteristic views on 1) God the creator, 2) God the redeemer, 3) the nature, means of appropriation, and effect of grace, and 4) The Church, ministry and Sacraments
Swiss Reformation/Reformed tradition
Emerges in Swiss Confederation (Zurich, Geneva, Basle). Calvin was its spokesperson, thought the movement predates his involvement. "Holy Commonwealth" trained reformed pastors. Theology stresses sovereignty, the rule of God in all things. Unconditional election and double predestination
Divine decree according to which certain persons are infallibly guided to eternal salvation. Lutheran doctrine is justification by faith. Calvinist doctrine is that of double predestination.
3 Levels of Authority recognized by protestant theologians
scripture - supreme, universal authority
creeds - establish accurate and authoritative interpretations of scripture
confessions of fatih - define orthodoxy for specific groups, regionally and denominationally
Forms of theological literature
catechisms, confessions of faith, and works of systematic theology
Marburg Colloquy (date!)
1529; Zwingli and Luther disagreed over the Eucharist. Led to the subsequent split between Lutheran and Reformed (swiss) churches in 1530. Luther argued for consubstantiation, Zwingli said that the presence of Christ was purely symbolic
Influenced Reformed church and radical reformation. Affirmed justification by faith, authority of scripture, symbolic presence during the eucharist, and infant baptism
matters not regarded as essential to faith, but permissible to Christians and allowed in the Church
Lutherans - signs of God's grace (infant baptism and consubstantiation)
Calvinism - earthly sign associated with a promos from god (infant baptism, spiritual presence)
Anabaptists - sign of believers' allegiance (adult baptism, symbolic view of the Eucharist)
Bread and body of Christ are present at the same time.
Symbolic presence of the eucharist. Elements are symbolic; a memorial of the suffering of Christ.
Affirmed justification by faith, authority of the scripture, symbolic presence during eucharist, and ADULT baptism.
Dutch parish priest who joined the Anabaptists. preached adult baptism, local church authority, and non-violence. Rejected transubstantiation
Centered in Zurich, breaking away from Zwingli's reforms in the 1520s for not being radical or faithful to scripture enough. Break from traditional understanding of sacraments and church/secular society
profession of presbyterian faith that established itself as the definitive statement of Presbyterian doctrine
Council of Trent (date!)
1545; Embodied ideals of counter-reformation and establish solid base for renewal of discipline and spiritual life in the RC church. Clarifies doctrine and introduces reforms. Emphasizes teachings on scripture and tradition, justification through human cooperation with divine grace, transubstantiation, and the sacraments.
Conversion of the whole substance of bread and wine into the Body and Blood. Reaffirmed at council of trent
Gcardinal who took an active part in the last attempt to secure union with the Lutherans at the Council of Trent.
king of spain, husband of mary who maintained catholicism, neutralized the Turks, and forced Henry IV to abandon protestantism.
reforms within Catholicism
Reforms of religious orders, establishment of new orders (i.e. Jesuits), hierarchal pattern of change, and removal of abuses
christians in india
Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order)
Order founded by Ignatius of Loyola known for for piety, organization, support from the Catholic hierarchy, missionary activity, and their rigorous educational program
Ignatius of Loyola
Founder of the Jesuits who aimed to rekindle religious fervor and practice in the Church.
padroado or patronato
royal patronage or authority over churches in the colonies, undermined papal authority
Treaty of Tordesvilles
divides the world between Spain and Portugal for colonization and requirer the empires to spread the Christian faith
Bartolome de las Casas (1484-1566)
Spanish Dominican Friar known for defending the rights of Native Americans
Robert de Nobili (1577-1656)
Jesuit who modified catholic teaching to make it more comprehensible to local civilizations
Jesuit missionary involved in Chinese Rites Controversy. People criticized his method of accommodation (assimilated Confucian deity into Christian theism)
Roberto Bellarmine (1542-1621)
Jesuit theologian who opposed Protestantism. View that the pope had only indirect power in temporal affairs was controversial. Defended the rationality of Catholicism.
always the same - demonstrate continuity between patristic writers and catholic though central to RC arguments against protestantism
Initiated by political action of Henry VIII who sought to end his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Passed legislation that appointed the king as supreme head of the Church of England, completing the break from Rome. Changed the structure but not the practices and doctrines of the church.
Church of England (Anglicanism)
- measure strength of papacy
- Henry VIII's divorce
- severing financial, judicial, and administrative bonds with Rome
- dissolve monasteary
- Reversal by Mary
- Elizabeth, elizabethan compromise
King Henry VIII
King of England. Began steps to procure annulment. Supremacy act declared him supreme head of the english church.
Put in charge of ecclesiastical affairs. Strong advocate of Protestantism and the royal supremacy in Church and State.
Became the archbishop of Canterbury and helped devise new Anglican liturgies. He began creating a new liturgy (system of worship). He and his fellow priests issued two new prayer (2 versions) books in 1549 (seen as too conservative) and in 1552 which developed a new English order of service
Protestant martyr arrested and tortured for her beliefs. Henry VIII ordered her burned at the stake
Restored the Latin liturgy, clerical celibacy, and reestablished monasteries. She repealed the Protestant religious laws passed by Henry VIII, which returned the English church to the authority of Rome. She then began to persecute Protestants as heretics, giving her the name "Bloody Mary." Her persecutions and marriage to Phillip II of Spain contributed to popular belief that Catholicism was a foreign religion built on prosecution.
Queen Elizabeth I
Took the throne and allowed a return to protestantism. She attempted to make the Church of England inclusive through the Elizabethan settlement
via media, Elizabethan compromise, Elizabethan settlement
Protestant theology with traditional practices. She rejected full Calvinism, but did affirm justification by faith. They adopted the liturgy and prayer book of 1552, keeping the church structure of bishops, and also kept ecclesiastical vestments. Elizabeth's compromise came to be criticized by many Protestants, who were frustrated that the Reformation agenda was not pursued in its fullest
Form of reformed theology and practice that emphasizes the experimental and church-related aspects of faith. Emphasized the importance of relating theology to the issues of everyday life. Christian life becomes evidence of salvation - divine sovereignty, providence, and election.
Founded by Wesley brothers. Emphasizes the need for conversion, catholic spirit of love, arminianism, and christian perfection
Founder of Methodist movement who taught justification by faith and pursuit of Christian perfection.
Co-founder of methodist movement within the C of E who opposed all movement tending to separation.
State of perfect love (i.e. believer has purity of motives and never intentionally sins)
Elaborate worship emphasizing sacraments and including clerical vestments, choirs, and organists in beautiful church settings
Theologians who maintained that the Bread and Wine were the Body and Blood of Christ only in a sacramental/metaphorical sense.Came to be applied to all who denied real presence of christ in the Eucharist
Conditional predestination (Christ dies for all but only those who believe are saved). Person can resist the grace of God and a true believer can fall from grace. -- sacramentalists
English Christians who wished to separate from the C of E and form independent local churches. Eventually called congregationalists (episcopal - bishop; presbyterian - presbyters). Fundamental idea was gathered church, belief that this who are Christian believers should seek out others.
Emerged out of English puritanism and separatism. John Smyth and Thomas Helwys established the 1st baptist church in England near London; gathered church, adult baptism, local church independence, congregationalist structure, religious liberty
Founder of the General Baptists who established the 1st modern baptist church
English Baptist. Established in Amsterdam then took a group to London. Believer's church, adult baptism, and religious liberty
"City Upon a Hill" (Winthrop)
Like every other effort of godly people, Massachusetts was visible for all the world to learn from.
Pietism comes from a Latin word pietas, which means piety or godliness. It emphasizes the importance of Christian doctrine for everyday life. 1675 when Philip Jakop Spener published Pia Desideria (Pious Wishes) in 1675. Sought to replace the emphasis on institutions and dogma in Protestant circles by concentrating on the practice of piety.
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