48 terms

Poetry Terminology 1&2

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Alliteration
the repetition at close intervals of initial consonant sounds.
(ex: She sells sea shells by the sea shore.)
Allusion
a reference, explicit or implicit, to previous history/literature
(ex: Pound of Flesh, Sacred Cow)
Assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds at close intervals
(ex: I lie down by the side of my bride.)
Cacophony
a harsh, discordant, unpleasant sounding arrangement of sounds - especially caused by consonants close together causing a lack of fluidity.
(ex: CACOphony, Jabberwock, rubber baby baggy bumpers)
Caesura
a grammatical/rhetorical pause introduced by a mark of punctuation, causing what would be a natural pause in regular speech.
(ex: I hear lake water lapping // with low sounds by the shore.
Oh say can you see, by the dawn's early light.)
Connotation
when a word suggests beyond that word's definition
(ex: slender and bony has the same meaning but one has a positive connotation [slender] while the other doesn't [bony]).
Consonance
the repetition at close intervals of final consonants sounds (ex: reject and deck, dawn and down, litter and batter)
Couplet
two successive rhyming lines
(ex: Poetry is so much fun//I think I'd rather state at the sun)
Dead Metaphor
a metaphor that has been used so often that the comparison is no longer vivid
(ex: kick the bucket; falling head over heels in love)
Denotation
the dictionary meaning/definition of a word
Extended Metaphor
a metaphor that can run the length of the poem or as far as the writer wants it to go
(ex: All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players.
Free verse
non metrical verse; lines with no fixed metrical pattern
(ex: Come slowly Eden/ Lips unused to thee/ Bashful, sip thy jasmines/...)
Haiku
a three line Japanese poem consisting of 5,7,5 syllables
(ex: Reading fills me/ Fuel's my mind's thirsty tank/ With imaginings)
Hyperbole
A figure of speech where exaggeration/overstatement is used
(ex: it's raining cats and dogs)
Implied Metaphor
A metaphor that does not explicitly state the two terms of comparison
(ex: Russ swelled and rustled his feathers, strutting down the hall chirping compliments to all the pretty girls.)
Metaphor
A figure of speech in which an explicit comparison is made between 2 unlike things
(ex: Her eyes were sapphire diamonds that sparkled and could cut with ease)
Mixed Metaphor
A metaphor that is out of control and combines its terms so that they are incompatible
(ex: Russ swelled and rustled his feathers, slittering down the hall hissing compliments to all the pretty girls.)
Onomatopoeia
words that mimic their meaning in their sound
(ex: snap, sizzle, pop, crack)
Prose
Non-metrical verse; the opposite of verse
(ex: everyday speech, not poetry)
Refrain
repeated word, phrase, line or group of lines, normally at a fixed pace
(ex: a chorus in a song)
Satire
ridicules human folly or vice with the purpose of reforming others
(ex: Shrek is a satire of our society's focus on material possessions and physical perfection)
Simile
a figure of speech in which an explicit comparison is made using like or as
(ex: Her eyes were LIKE diamonds)
Sonnet
fourteen line poem of two main types, Italian or Elizabethan
(ex: Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date.
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimmed;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to Time thou grow'st.
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
Elizabethan Sonnet ends w/ couplet while Italian does not
This Shakespeare Sonnet = Italian
Verse
literature in metrical form; the opposite of prose
(ex: all songs and poems and shapespeare plays)
Apostrophe
An address to the dead as if living; to the inanimate as if animate; to the absent as if present
(Ex: Oh Week, why won't you end? Oh, Starbucks, how much do I love you?)
Blank Verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter
(Ex: Hippolyta, I wooed thee with my sword/ And won thy love, doing thee injuries./But I will wed thee in another key,/ With pomp, with triumph, and with reveling.)
Chiasmus
A type of rhetorical balance in which the second part is syntactically balanced against the first, but with reversed parts.
(Ex: Beauty is truth, truth beauty)
Conceit
Unusual or surprising comparison between two very different things; a special kind of metaphor first used by the Metaphysical poets.
(Ex: Comparing marriage to a flea, or music to a bicycle
Elegy
A formal sustained poem in honor of a dead person
(Ex:Whitman - My captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still; My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse or will;.....)
End Rhyme
Rhyme used at the end of a line to echo the end of another line
(Ex: Poe - Once upon a midnight dreary/ While I wandered weak and weary)
Explication
The act of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text.
(Examples: Explaining how Langston Hughes uses rivers to represent his proud African-American heritage)
Figurative Language
A word or words that are inaccurate literally but call to mind sensations or responses that the thing described evokes.
(Ex: The water of my mind crashes about in the turbulent storm of knowledge)
Figure of Speech
A form of expression in which words are used out of the usual sense in order to make the meaning more specific.
(Ex: Let me give you a piece of my mind.)
Imagery
The use of images to create a strong unified sensory impression
(Ex:Thorns ripped at her dress and the soles of her feet as she scrambled through the wild brush.)
Internal Rhyme
Rhyme that occurs within a line of verse.
(Ex: And since we all came from a woman/ got our name from a woman and our game from a woman/ I wonder why we take from our women/ why we rape our women. Do we hate our women? - Tupac)
Limerick
A short poem that tells a story (usually humorous) and has the following structure; five lines total. The first, second, and fifth lines have seven to ten syllables, rhyme, and have the same verbal rhythm. Lines three and four shorter (five to seven syllables), and rhyme, and have the same rhythm.
(Ex: There was a Young LAdy whose chin/Resembled the point of a pin;/ So she had it made sharp,/ And purchased a harp,/ And played several times with her chin.)
Litote
Form of understatement where the positive is emphasized through the negative.
(Ex: When I came in three hours after curfew last night, my parents were not very happy with me.)
Metonymy
A figure of speech in which a person, place or thing is referred to by something closely associated with it.
(Ex: The president of the United States is often referred to as the White House or the Oval Office. The Queen of England is referred to as The Crown.)
Oxymoron
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradiction terms in a phrase.
(Ex: jumbo shrimp, ice burn, silence screams, cruel kindness.)
Personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts or attitudes.
(Ex: The flowers dances in the wind.)
Pun
A play on words based on the multiple meanings of a single word.
(Ex: sun vs son, night vs knight, rain vs reign)
Quatrain
A poem consisting of four lines or four lines of a poem that can be considered a unit.
Rhyme or Rime
A repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words; it includes the agreement of vowel sounds in assonance and the repetition of consonant sounds in consonance and alliteration.
Rhythm
A rise and fall produced by the alteration of stressed and unstressed syllables in language.
Stanza
A group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated throughout the poem. (like a paragraph in an essay)
Symbol
A person, place, thing or event that has meaning in itself and that also stands for something more than itself.
(Ex: A dove represents peace; light represents knowledge; apples represent temptation.)
Syndecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part represents the whole.
(Ex: Some people refer to their cars as their wheels. A boat is often referred to as a sail.)
Understatement
A statement that says less than what is meant
(Ex: When I came in three hours after curfew last night, my parents were more than a little upset with me.)
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