How does the social philosopher differ from the social scientist?
Social philosopher does not try to determine empirically what kinds of societies actually exist and how they in fact differ from one another. This is the task of social scientist. Social philosophers are concerned w/social relationship among people, those relations which exist in the nation or state.
What kinds of questions must the social philosopher grapple with?
Social philosopher is rather concerned w/normative questions surrounding the nature of the state and its justification, as well as evaluative questions concerning the ideal kind of social arrangements within the state and in particular the proper relationship between the govt. and its citizens.
What examples of political language must the political philosopher attempt to clarify?
equality; freedom; human right; punishment
What single question of political philosophy does the textbook authors examine in the text?
We will look at a single question: the relationship between the individual and the society as a whole. Should the individual's right be limited for the good of society, or should society's welfare be subordinated to the good of the individual.
What is meant by the debate between the libertarian capitalist right and the egalitarian socialist left?
today the debate is rather hoe to combine and balance in one social system individual liberties with a more equal distribution of social goods that require governmental regulation of the marketplace. also expanded to include the question of the proper relationship between individual countries and multi-national bodies which claim the right to regulate the practices of these countries.
What is meant by distinction between negative freedom and positive freedom relative to the state?
free from govt restraint and help from govt.
How would you characterize the United Stated government in light of distinction between the negative and positive view of the state
The egalitarian goal at expense of libertarian principles. The major political debate in all democracies today continues to be how tp combine these two apparently irreconcilable
How do the libertarians and the socialists egalitarians differ as to their idea of justice?
The libertarians say equal pay for equal ability or productivity. the socialist, egalitarian ideal, equal pay for equal human need and equal worth as a human being.
Why is the debate between the libertarian and social egalitarians so difficult to reconcile?
because they like oil and water are hard to mix it is not complete consensus as to which given priority, we might like to have a measure both to pull in opposite direction.
What is your own view? On which side of the debate do you come down?
Both have strong and weak point we can combine the two strong argument to make it better
What was the expressed aim of the seventeenth and eighteenth social philosophers including Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau?
was to determine the justification for the state's authority over its citizen.
What did these philosophers mean by the concept of the state of nature?
There are no restriction imposed on anyone to do someone else's bidding, and in that sense people in a state of nature are completely free. the only restraint upon human behavior in this primitive stage is that imposed by reason itself.
What does Locke mean by the social contract?
In cases which there is abuse of power and no remedy from the constituted authority, citizens always reserve for themselves the option to revolt against the rulers. Locke's right to revolution does not mean to encourage continual disorder and social instability.
Why does Locke believe that we need government?
Becausee people are naturally free in a state of nature, they are unlikely to enjoy this freedom because greed and irrationallity of some self centered individual.
How does Locke characterize the state of nature relative to man's freedom and equality?
had a power to execute that law and thereby
What did Locke originally mean by the concept of property?
every man has a property in his own person; this nobody has any right but himself. what soever, then he removes out of the state that nature hath provided abd left it in, he hath mixed his labor with, and joined to it something that is his own, and threby makes it his property.
Why does Locke argue that the rule of the majority is crucial to the idea of a compact?
everyman, by consenting with others to make one body politic under one government, puts himself under on obligation to every one of that society, to submit to determination of the majority and to be conclude by it or else.
What does Locke mean by tacit consent?
Locke's philosophy of tacit consent implied that by living in a nation you give tacit consent to be governed by it.
Why is the person in the state of nature willing to part with their freedom and become a member of civil society?
everyman his equal and the greater part no strict observers of equity ad justice, the enjoyment of the property he has in this state is very unsafe,very unsecure make free is full of fear and continual danger for mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and estate (property)
What are the three reasons Locke cites for humankind fleeing the state of nature?
1. There wants an established, settled, known law, received and allowed by common consent to be the standard of right and wrong and the common measure to decide all controversies between them 2. Their wants a known and indifferent judge, with authority to determine all differences according to the established law. 3. There often wants power to back and support the sentence when right and to give it due execution
What two powers do human's have in the state of nature which are given up in civil society?
1. todo whatsoever he thinks fit for the preservation of himself and other within the permission of the law of nature by which law,common to them all , 2. power a man has instate of nature is power to punish the crimes committed against that law.
According to Locke when might the government be dissolved?
violating natural rights
According to the text how has the term "liberalism" shifted in meaning since the nineteenth century?
defending right individual, now government need to strenght, and need to grows. the meaning opposite more liberty less government they call today conservative.
What does Mill argue concerning Liberty in his classic work, On Liberty?
the people should do what they want to do without harm other.
What is the debate about liberalism?
government is democratic rules, that majority rules
What are the two philosophical responses to it
we should also have the right to adequate social and economic good. Argue that society as a whole will benefit and welfare of everyone will be enhance.
What is your view of the two competing views of right?
libertarian liberals who emphasize property rights, egalitarian liberals who emphasize the right of every individual to equal respect and dignity. Balance for government
In Mill's essay On Liberty what is the simple principle is he defending
that the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with liberty action of action any of their number, is self protection.
What kinds of positive act does Mill argue a person might be compelled to do?
The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercise over any member of civilized community against his will is to prevent harm to other.
What according to Mill is firstly the appropriate region of human liberty?
The inward domain of consciousness; demanding liberty conscience, in the most comprehensive sense, liberty though, feeling, absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subject, practical or speculative, scientific, moral ot theological.
What does the principle require secondly?
freedom of speech,freedom to exercise; the principle requires liberty of tastes and pursuits; of framing the plan of our life ti suit our own character, freesom to unite for any purpose not involving harm to other.
What according to Mill is a great evil which tends to threaten liberty of the individual?
large an increasing inclination to stretch unduly the power of society over the individual
What are the four distinct grounds Mill recapitulates in defense of freedom of opinion?
1. if any opinion is compelled to silence that opinion may, ought we can certainly know, be true. to deny this is to assume our own infallibility. 2. thought the silenced opinion be an error, it may, and very commonly does, contain a portion of truth; and since the general or prevailing opinion on any subject is rarely. 3. even if received opinion be not only true, but the whole true; unless it is suffered to be.
What are the limits of governmental interference in the lives of citizens?
whether the government should do or cause to be done, something for their benefit, instead of leaving it to be done by themselves, individually, or in voluntary combination.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, "The Social Contract" - SUMMARIES20 terms