What are the differences between omniscient and restricted narration?
Omniscient: all knowing unrestricted aspects to all aspects
Restricted narration: Restricts information it provides to things only known by one character
How (and why) do we distinguish between the story and plot of a movie?
Story: 1) narrative events presented explicitly on screen 2) implicit/inferred events story incorporates what's implied
Plot: 1) specific actions and events and the order to effectively convey narrative 2) has non diegetic elements
What is meant by the diegesis of a story? What is the difference between diegetic and nondiegetic elements in the plot?
Diegesis: total world of story aka events characters objects settings and sounds
Nondiegetic: things we see and hear on screen that come from the outside world aka score music, titles, credits, voice over. Sounds characters can't hear
Which of the following is the most common relationship of screen duration to plot duration: summary relationship, real time, or stretch relationship?
Define each one
Summary relationship: screen duration is shorter than plot duration
Real Time: screen duration corresponds directly to plot duration
Stretch relationship: screen duration is longer than plot duration
When we hear a characters voice over the picture without actually seeing the character speak words
Direct Address Narration
Directly to the the audience/ breaks the fourth wall separating the viewer from the two-D fiction on screen
unrestricted access in all aspects
limits information it provides the audience to things only known to a single character
complex character, possess numerous subtle/repressed or contradictory traits that change over the story
uncomplicated with few distinct traits and don't change significantly throughout the story
primary character who pursues the goal sometimes called the hero but that is misleading
opposes the protagonist (look more into this)
unsympathetic protagonist chasing less than noble goals
Inciting Incident (Catalyst)
Presents the character with the goal that will drive the rest of the narrative
Tension provokes enhances our engagement with ongoing narrative
narrative peak/ the goal is in greatest jeopardy and affirmative answer to the central question, seems all but impossible
narrative wraps up loose ends and moves towards conclusion
narrative events presented explicitly on screen implicit/inferred events
specific actions/events + the order to effectively convey narrative
events, characters, objects, setting, sounds that occur in world
elements that make up diegesis
Non Diegetic element
those things we see and hear on the screen that come from outside world of the story, core music titles and credits, voice-over comments from a voice-over narration
amount of time that the implied story takes to occur
time elapsed of those events within the story that the film explicitly presents
a movies running time on screen
writes screenplay, each page equals one minute of screen time
Narrative Structure for Spirited Away: -Inciting Incident
Chihiros parents take a detour and they explore an abandoned theme park, they eat the spirit food and they turn into pigs. Chihiro discovers them at twilight and as darkness falls the spirits begin to arrive to the park. She is helped by a boy named Haku who tells her she must get a job at Yubaba's bathhouse if she is to stay and rescue her parents.
Narrative Structure for Spirited Away: -Rising Action
a) Chihiro finds her way to the witch and gets a job. Chihiro gives Yubaba her name and becomes known as Sen. Haku shows her where her parents are being kept
b) Chihiro helps the stink spirit and it turns out he's a water spirit. Chihiro is given powerful medicine by the spirit. Chihiro is no longer a scared little girl, she has proven she can hold her own amongst the other workers
Narrative Structure for Spirited Away: -Crisis
a) Haku returns and is really wounded. The No-Face monster is allowed into the bathhouse by Chihiro and is luring people in with gold and eating them. Chihiro confronts Zeniba who says she wounded Haku after he stole her golden seal.
b) Chihiro finds Haku and heals him with part of the water spirit's medicine, then goes to return the seal to Zeniba to get her to forgive Haku and leave him alone
Narrative Structure for Spirited Away: -Climax
a) After feeding No Face the rest of the medicine forcing him to throw up the people he ate, Chihiro takes him to confront Zeniba. Chihiro returns the seal and apologizes on Haku's account, only to discover that Zeniba is kind. Haku comes to get Chihiro and she remembers his name and that he is a river spirit, which frees him from Yubaba's control.
b) Chihiro wins Yubaba's bet that she won't recognize her parents, freeing everyone
Narrative Structure for Spirited Away: -Resolution
Chihiro and her unwitting parents return to the human world, Chihiro has changed forever. She no longer fears something as mundane as moving to a new town
Narrative Structure for Rear Window: -Inciting Incident
Jeff is looking out of the window and there is a scream and glass breaking
-The goal of trying to prove that Thorwald murdered his wife is formed??
Narrative Structure for Rear Window: -Rising Action
a) Lisa looks out the window and says "Tell me everything you saw and what you think it means"
b)Shortly after the dog was seen digging up the flower beds The dog is found dead and they see Thorwald sitting in his living room in the dark with a cigarette glowing
c) They see Thorwald scrubbing the bathroom walls, they write a note to Thorwald
Narrative Structure for Rear Window: -Crisis
Thorwald is going to leave and they are trying to prove he is the murderer before he leaves. They plan on calling Thorwald, they figure out the rising is in the flowerbed. Stella and Lisa leave to go and get the ring from the flowerbed, Jeff prepares the flash bulbs. Lisa and Stella dig and there is no ring. Lisa goes into Thorwald's apartment. Lisa finds the ring. Thorald returns. The police arrive. Lisa shows the ring to Jeff and Thorwald sees the ring and catches Jeff watching them.
Narrative Structure for Rear Window: -Climax
camera narrator shows Thorwald look at Jeff's window and leaving
-There is a confrontation between Thorwald and Jeff where Thorwald confirms Jeff's theory that he killed his wife. There is a struggle and Jeff ends up dangling from his balcony. He falls and ends up breaking his other leg
Narrative Structure for Rear Window: -Resolution
Ms Lonelyheart is with the composer. Thorwald's apartment is painted. There is a new puppy in the basket. Miss Torso's man comes home. The artist is sleeping. The Newly Weds are bickering
-Jeff is asleep in his casts and Lisa is reading
What is Mise-en-scene? What is the literal meaning of the phrase? What do we mean by this phrase more generally when we discuss movies?
-Literally means staging or putting on an action or scene (aka staging). More generally means the overall look and feel of the movie. The sum of everything the audience sees hears and experiences
What are the two major visual components of mise-en-scene?
-Design: process by which look of settings, props, lighting and actors is determined -Composition: organization, distribution, balance and general relationship of actors and objects within space of each shot
What are the principle responsibilities of the production designer, and when is the production designer usually brought into the film production (during pre-production, production or post-production?
-usually hired early in film process, pre-production
-principle responsibilities: responsible for overall design concept for the look of the movie, individual sets, locations, furnishings, props and costumes, and supervising heads of department involved with creating that work
What is composition? What are the two major elements of composition?
-composition: part of the process of visualizing and planning the design of a movie -two elements: framing (what we see on screen) and kinesis (what moves on screen)
What are the two basic types of movement we see on-screen?
-movement of objects/characters within the frame -The apparent movement of the frame itself
objects like paintings, vases, flowers, silver tea sets, guns, rods, that helps us understand characters by showing us preferences
windowless, sound proof, professional shooting environment usually several stories high and can take up a lot of space
the use of deep gradations and subtle variations of lights/darks within an image
what we see on screen
the movement on screen
any image that a director periodically repeats in a movie (with or without variations) to help stabilize the narrative
The planned positions and movements of the actors and the cameras for each scene
Deep Space Composition
emphasizes depth by placing significant narrative information on multiple planes of depth
occurs when the filmmaker intentionally breaks the rule of thirds, which then denies the viewer their expectation of balance
Rule of thirds
Dividing image into 3 horizontal components and 3 vertical components
What are the differences among a set-up, a shot and a take?
-Setup: one camera position and everything associated with it -Shot: one interrupted run of the camera -Take: the number of shots taken
Who is the director of photography? What are their general duties?
AKA cinematographer. Translates the vision into reality, combines movement, writing and lighting
Duties: properties of the shot (film stock, lighting, lenses), framing the shot, speed and length, special effects
How the lighting for any movie looks is determined, in part, by its source and direction. Explain these terms and the effect each has on the overall lighting.
Lighting shapes the way the movie looks and helps tell the story -Lighting creates our sense of cinematic space by illuminating people and things, creating highlights and shadow, and defining shapes and textures -Sources: Natural (sunlight) or artificial -Direction: where the light is coming from, behind, above, below, etc. Able to produce effects such as shadows
What are the names of the most commonly used shots used in a movie? Be able to describe them based on proximity
there are 7 shot types
Shot types: implied proximity to the camera -extreme long shot: great distance, establishes setting -long shot: like you're sitting in a live performance -Medium long shot (americanshot)- could see the knees up of a person (approximately), and get a good idea of location -Medium shot: waist up of a person (approximately), more intimacy with audience as if subject is interacting with us -Medium close-up: upper chest (approximately) and up of a person -Close-up: face fills most of the frame -Extreme close-up: only part of the face is visible
The closer the shot gets, setting gets more irrelevant
What is the rule of thirds
splitting the frame or picture into three sections vertically and horizontally
The movie camera can shoot from various angles. What are they? What meaning does each imply? Do these implications always hold true? (hint: there are five)
employed extensively during Hollywood studio era, used to cast a glamorous light on stars. Key light. Fill light, and backlight
also known as main or source light, is the PRIMARY source of illumination and therefore is set first. Positioned to one side of the camera, creates harsh shadows
positioned at the opposite side of the camera from the key light, adjusts the depth of the shadows created by the brighter key light. May also come from a reflector
positioned behind and above subject and camera and used to create highlights along the edges of the subject as a means of separating it from the background and increasing 3D appearance
the balance between the key and fill lights
when little or no fill light is used, the ratio between bright illumination and deep shadow is high. Gloomy atmosphere in horror films, mysteries, psychological dramas, crime stories, and film noirs
produces an image with very little contrast between the darks and lights. Even, flat illumination does not call particular attention to the subject being photographed. -dramas, musicals, comedies and adventure films
lighting from underneath a character. Creates eerie, omnious shadows on the actor's face by reversing the normal placement of illumination and shadow
a total visual composition that places significant information or subjects on all three planes of the frame thus creating an illusion of depth
using the short-focal length lens, keeps all three planes (of depth) in sharp focus
level and height of the camera in relation to the subject being photographed
Eye level shot
made from the observer's eye level and usually implies that the camera's attitude towards the subject being photographed is neutral
is made with the camera above the action and typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed
made with the camera below the action and typically places the observer in the position of feeling helpless in the presence of a superior force
the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical position so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance
Aerial- view shot (bird's eye view)
an extreme type of point-of-view shot, taken from an aircraft or very high crane and implies to observer's omniscience
horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod. ensures smooth panning and tilting and keeps the frame level. offers audience larger, more panoramic view, guides our attention to characters or actions that are important, makes us aware of relationships between subjects that are too far apart to be shown together in the frame, allows us to follow people or objects and attempts to replicate what we see when we turn our heads to survey a scene or follow a character
vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod
Dolly shot (dolly in, dolly out)
taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support, known dolly
-move towards to subject, the subject grows in the frame, gaining significance not only from being bigger but also from the moments we see in getting bigger
moving away from the subject, used for slow disclosure, which occurs when an edited succession of images leads from one thing to another as they gradually reveal the elements of a scene
type of dolly shot that moves smoothly with the action when the camera is mounted on a wheeled vehicle that runs on a set of tracks
made from a camera mounted on an elevating arm that is, in turn, mounted on a vehicle capable of moving under its own power
a lens with a variable focal length, which permits the camera operator during shooting to shift from wide-angle lens (short focus) to the telephoto lens (long focus) or vice versa without changing the focus or aperture setting. - illusion of the camera moving toward or away from the subject
computer generated imagery is the application of computer graphics to create special effects. -2 categories of CGI: live-action movies (avatar, lord of the rings) fully animated feature films
made by filming action in front of a rear-projection screen that has on it still or moving images for the background
specific CGI effect in which a live-action subject wears a bodysuit fitted with reflective markers that enables a computer to record each movement as digital images. They are then translated, with as much manipulation as desired into models on which the screen figures are based
What is persona
For movie actors, personae are their appearance and mannerisms of moving and delivering dialogue-unique creations that are consistent at least on some level from role to role and from performance to performance. -usually (but not always) rooted in their natural behavior, personality and physicality
What are the differences between acting for screen and acting for the stage?
Stage acting: -Play to audience -must project vocally and physically -memorize their lines and then speak and act them in the story order
Screen acting: -play to camera -small gestures are fundamental tools for screen actor -learn only the lines needed for the moment and act out of sequence
What are the four key types of actors presented early in your reading?
-Personality actor: takes their personae from role to role -Against type actor: plays the opposite role of what they are known for, playing a "play against expectations" against our expectations -Chameleon actor: seems to be different in every role they have -Non-professional actor: cast to bring realism to a part
Who was Lillian Gish and how did she serve in the evolution of screen acting?
Under Griffith's guidance, Lillian Gish invented the art of screen acting. Her performance in Broken Blossoms was the first great film performance by an actor
What is method acting? And what was it based upon?
It was based upon the theory and practice of Konstantin Stanislavsky. He developed the Stanislavsky system of acting, he trained students to strive for realism, both social and psychological and to bring their own past experiences and emotions to their roles
What is "casting"?
It is the process of choosing and hiring actors for a movie