46 terms

Chapter 15 - Abnormal Psychology

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psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
DSM-5
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
specific phobic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
somatoform disorder
psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause. (See conversion disorder and hypochondriasis.)
conversion disorder
a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found.
illness anxiety disorder
a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. Also known as hypochondriasis.
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
dissociative identity disorder
rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
mania
a bipolar I symptom marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder)
schizophrenia
characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by a deficit of typical emotional responses.
delusions
A delusion is an unshakable belief in something untrue
personality disorders
are a class of mental disorders characterised by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture
antisocial personality disorder
characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.
psychoanalytic theory
this school hypothesized that the interactions among the id, the ego, and the superego were responsible for abnormal behavior.
borderline personality disorder
a "stable instability" of relationships, moods, and self-image - seeing people as either "bad" or "good"
abnormal behavior
four components: atypical (deviates statistically from typical behavior), maladaptive (interferes with a person's ability to function in a particular situation), unjustifiable (not easy to explain to most people)
Psychopathology
Patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are maladaptive, disruptive, or uncomfortable for those who are affected or for those with whom they come in contact. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 588)
Biopsychosocial Model
A view of mental disorders as caused by a combination of interacting biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 592)
Neurobiological Model
A modern name for the medical model, in which psychological disorders are seen as reflecting disturbances in the anatomy and chemistry of the brain and in other biological processes. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 593)
Psychological Model
A view in which mental disorder is seen as arising from psychological processes. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 593)
Sociocultural Model
A way of looking at mental disorders in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and other social and cultural factors. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 594)
Diathesis-Stress Approach
Viewing psychological disorders as arising when a predisposition for a disorder combines with sufficient amounts of stress to trigger symptoms. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 595)
Agoraphobia
An anxiety disorder involving strong fear of being alone or away from the security of home. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 605)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
A condition that involves relatively mild but long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular object or situation. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 605)
Panic Disorder
An anxiety disorder involving sudden panic attacks. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 605)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder involving repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain rituals. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 606)
Somatoform Disorders
Psychological problems in which there are symptoms of a physical disorder without a physical cause. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 610)
Conversion Disorder
A somatoform disorder in which a person displays blindness, deafness, or other symptoms of sensory or motor failure without a physical cause. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 610)
Major Depressive Disorder
A mood disorder in which a person feels sad and hopeless for weeks or months. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 614)
Delusions
False beliefs, such as those experienced by people suffering from schizophrenia or extreme depression. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 614)
Dysthymic Disorder
Persistent Depressive Disorder. A mood disorder involving a pattern of comparatively mild depression that lasts for at least two years. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 615)
Bipolar I Disorder
A mood disorder in which a person alternates between deep depression and mania. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 617)
Schizophrenia
A severe and disabling pattern of disturbed thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 621)
Hallucinations
A symptom of disorder in which people perceive voices or other stimuli when there are no stimuli present. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 623)
Positive Symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms such as disorganized thoughts, hallucinations, and delusions. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 624)
Negative Symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms such as absence of pleasure, lack of speech, and flat affect. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 624)
persistent depressive disorder
also called dysthymia, is a continuous long-term (chronic) form of depression.
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