ISS Exam 2
Terms in this set (43)
Study how evolution occurs in the natural world of living things.
Use ideas from geology, biology and evolutionary biology to study change over time in living things, as recorded by fossils (fossil bone, preserved impressions in stone).
Study how aspects of brain and behavior (such as memory, or language in humans) developed and function as adaptations (as products of natural selection).
Study fossil evidence of ancient humans and their ancestors to understand how people changed as biological and cultural beings.
Study the objects that people made (fire pits, camp sites, tools and other artifacts) to understand human behavior and culture (ideas, beliefs and values).
Preserved inorganic remains or traces of an organ material. In fossil wood or bone, over time, an inorganic material such as silica replaces every organic molecule. This process is called mineralization.
Change over time within a species. An example is the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Long term and large scale change over time. The development of new species is an example.
Interested in the origin of species. Best known for his mechanism of change called natural selection.
Characteristics of primates
-Binocular vision (three dimensional)
-Limbs that allow climbing and grasping
-Their hands are not paws; they have fine motor skills
-Emphasis on cognition and learning
Dry-nosed primates that have no tail. The lesser apes live in the trees. The great apes are terrestrial.
Some of the terrestrial apes are bipedal. Humans are the only living bipedal apes.
Apes that have big brains and small canine teeth (we do not have fangs). They are obligate bipeds. Modern humans are called Homo sapiens. Other species of humans are now extinct.
Social mammals that have adaptations for stereoscopic vision, grasping and climbing locomotion, and a large brain-to-body size ratio.
Primates that (generally) have wet noses (a rhinarium) and depend on their sense of smell (olfaction).
-2 million years ago
-increased brain size
-used stone tools, probably to crack open bones
-ex: homo rudolfensis
-1 million years ago
-had clothing and shelter
-some moved out of Africa into Eurasia, but some remained in Africa
-ex: homo erectus
-about half a million years ago
-use of fire and cooking
-used clothing and shelter
-some evidence of art and ritual. deliberate burials.
-found throughout Africa and Eurasia
-none in the Americas or Australia
-ex: homo antecessor
-160,000 before present
-Arrive in Europe by 45,000 BP
-Lots of symbolic and ritual behavior, with art and musical instruments
-use of spoken language
-some colonized the new world (the Americas) and also Australia
-ex: H. sapiens sapiens (that's us)
The study of material remains of human activities. These remains include hearth (fire pit), campsites hunting sites, human-altered plants and animal bones, and also artifacts.
Broca's area and Wernike's area
These are the areas of the brain that are important in decoding speech and also producing speech.
A change in behavior between the Archaic Moderns and Anatomically Modern Humans after about 70,000 BP. We are not really sure why behavior changed, but it may have had something to do with the internal organization and operation of the brain.
Dunbar's number (6; 150)
The observed (empirical) number of close relationships that modern humans can typically maintain over a period of time.
Refers to ranking. Individuals can establish dominance/submission relationships. In later human society, it refers to social status groups.
One who studies modern humans and how they behave in groups. They are usually concerned with large-scale industrial societies and the institutions in them.
Effects of the cognitive revolution
-AMH is able to communicate large amounts of information about the natural world.
-AMH is able to communicate about social relationships (ex: who is dependable and who is not)
-AMH is able to communicate ideas about things that do not exist. They can create a world of ideas, such as the spirit world, ideas about relationships, and imaginary things such as "money" and "being nice".
The variants of genes in sexual reproduction from the mother and the father that combine to form the new individual. The dominant one is expressed.
Predicts that animal body shapes are adaptations to hot or cold environments. Spherical body shapes minimizes surface area-to-volume; elongated body shape maximizes surface area-to-volume
Predicts that, in cold climate, large animals will lose heat more slowly than small animals.
Categories always vary together.
Two categories that are based on two different variables that do not vary together every single time.
Variation that has "gaps" in it, making groups easily identifiable (ex: monkeys have tails, apes do not).
Many groups are based on this (height, intelligence, hair color, skin color) and we are the ones who decide where the dividing lines go.
Defined within a range of physical requirements, such as temperature, altitude, moisture, oxygen levels, food resources, and the like. Organisms of a specific group cannot survive outside of these parameters.
Epicanthic eye fold
A fold tissue on the medial eyelid. Most people associate this with "Asian" people, but other populations in sub-saharan Africa and near-Arctic regions also have this.
An individual's sum total of all the genes in the body. Includes dominant and recessive genes.
Members are related species that occupy the same basic ecological niche.
If you have two similar alleles for a trait, then you are ______________ for that trait.
if you have two different alleles for a trait, the you are ____________ for that trait.
First menstruation for female humans.
An individual's expression of the genotype. For example, an individual may have brown eyes, but may have a recessive gene for blue eyes. Hence, two brown-eyed individuals may have a child with blue eyes.
Represents members of a species that are regularly interbreeding. The whole assortment of genes among all those individuals represents the local gene pool.
A group of organisms that members of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature.
A system of classification. Groups that are created using specified criteria.