geography quizzes 4-6
Terms in this set (80)
The passage of shortwave and longwave energy through the atmosphere and water is an example of
Molecule-to-molecule transfer of heat energy is
A stove that circulates heated air to uniformly cook food is an example of ________ heat transfer.
A vertical air current that is generated by temperature-induced density differences is an example of heat transfer by
Which two gases are primarily responsible for the greenhouse effect because of their ability to absorb infrared energy?
water vapor and carbon dioxide
The principle that explains the differential scattering of shorter wavelength radiation and accounts for the Earth's blue sky is
The reflective quality of a surface is known as its
The sky (lower tropopause) appears blue in color because of
If a surface absorbs insolation,
its temperature increases.
Differential transmissivity of shortwave insolation and longwave terrestrial radiation by various atmospheric gases is better known as the
the balance of all radiation incoming and outgoing at Earth's surface.
When water evaporates, the energy that was used to evaporate the water
is stored as latent heat in the evaporated water.
Which of the following is not a strategy used planners and architects to mitigate against the effects of the urban heat island?
using dark covered asphalt
Solar cookers could replace ________ as an affordable source of energy in rural villages in third world countries.
On average, urban areas are 1 to 3°C higher than nearby rural areas.
It can contribute 250 percent more heat energy in winter than is contributed by insolation.
anthropogenic heat production in cities
On land, the highest annual values for latent heat of evaporation (LE) occur
in the tropics
albedo of a surface is a measure of
Th highest levels of insolation occur in the equatorial and tropical latitudes.
All objects radiate electromagnetic energy. However, ______ objects radiate with greater intensity.
Incoming solar energy is redirected by particulate matter and gas molecules in the atmosphere,& therefore lost to Earth through what process?
The medium (surface) generally considered a better absorber of incoming solar radiation is:
The effect of wind and temperature on the human skin is called the
wind chill factor.
In general, as distance from the subsolar point increases, the average annual insolation ________ and the average annual temperature ________.
If the temperature at the surface of Earth (at sea level) is 100°F, what is the temperature at 2000 feet if the normal lapse rate is 3.5°F/1000 feet?
During the day, clouds ________ insolation, lowering daily maximum temperatures; at night, clouds ________ longwave energy, thereby raising minimum nighttime temperatures.
reflect; absorb and reradiate
The specific heat of land is ________ than water and, therefore, land heats more ________ than water.
As a result of the characteristics of water, cities located near a coast should experience a temperature range that is ________ those of cities located in the interior at the same latitude.
Which of the following U.S. cities would experience the least continentality? HINT: What is continentality?
Trondheim, Norway is located at approximately 63° N. Despite its high latitude, it has a relatively moderate annual temperature pattern. What likely accounts for this moderation of temparature?
Trondheim's maritime location.
Lines on a temperature map connecting points of equal temperature are called what?
All other factors being equal, temperature on a cloudy night is likely to be ________ temperature on a clear night.
The land surface cools off more rapidly at night than water does because
the energy is stored in a shallow layer near the surface of the land, and so it can be radiated away faster.
________ refers to the greater range between maximum and minimum temperatures that occurs in inland areas distant from large bodies of water.
The greatest ranges occur in east central Siberia in Russia.
________ is a prolonged period of abnormally high temperatures, usually in association with humid weather.
are being influenced by anthropogenic (human-induced) changes in the greenhouse effect.
Global average air temperatures worldwide
According to our course text, present carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are higher now than any time in the last 800,000 years.
Temperatures are usually quite uniform and unchanging with altitude.
Air pressure decreases with increased elevation.
Clouds moderate temperatures producing lower daily maximums and higher nightly minimums.
You would expect a tropical island to have a high degree of continentality.
Areas experiencing continentality, such as Verkhoyansk, Russia, can have exceptionally large annual temperature ranges (e.g. a range of 105 C° (189 F°)).
The subsolar point migrates annually between 23.5° N and 23.5° S latitude.
The intensity of solar radiation decreases away from the equator towards the poles.
Because water has a higher specific heat than land, it cools more quickly.
Evaporation is a cooling process.
The worlds smallest annual temperature range (ATR) typically occurs around the_______________
Overall insolation determined by the sun's mean altitude in the sky at solar noon (angle of incidence).
The direction a slope faces with respect to the sun is called slope aspect. In the Northern Hemisphere, where land is east-west aligned _______________ experiences warmer temperatures. HINT: draw it!
South facing slope
The horizontal motion of air relative to Earth's surface is
Winds are named based on
the direction from which they originate.
Air flow is initiated by the
pressure gradient force.
It drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure.
A isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as
On a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars?
a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air
is the only force acting on flows of air in the upper troposphere.
The Coriolis force
If Santa flew from the North Pole due south along the 100° meridian and did not correct his course, he would land
west of the 100° meridian.
Which is true of air flowing into low pressure center?
Air converges and ascends.
In the Northern Hemispheres, winds spiraling counterclockwise into a low pressure area are
If there is a steeper pressure gradient, wind will be ________than areas with a gradual pressure gradient.
If Earth did not rotate, air would flow
perpendicular to the isobars, i.e., straight across the isobars.
In the absence of friction force, the combined effect of the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient force produces
geostrophic winds at altitude above the ground.
Air descends and diverges within high pressure systems.
Which of the following primary pressure areas are produced by thermal factors, rather than dynamic factors?
equatorial low and polar high
The intertropical convergence zone is characterized by
convergence and uplift of warm surface air.
Winds that blow predominantly from the northeast and the southeast are the
The dominant surface winds from the subtropics to high latitudes are the
The polar high is more pronounced over ________ because ________.
The Antarctic; greater landmass
Air flow in a Northern Hemisphere high pressure zone is
downward, outward and clockwise.
The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is associated with
the equatorial low-pressure trough.
The area of conflict between colder and warmer air masses in the subpolar region
is termed the polar front.
The polar high pressure cells
produce the weak, variable polar easterlies.
Seasonally shifting wind systems associated with the annual cycle of returning precipitation are known as
Dry, warm downslope winds occurring on the leeward side of Cascades and Rockies are called
The wind converging at the equatorial low are known as
The tropical atmospheric circulation associated with rising winds along the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and descending air in the subtropics are called
involve onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon.
During the day along the coast, the wind tends to blow toward the ________ because ________.
land; land heats more rapidly than water
The great circulations in the ocean basins occur around the ________ pressure systems and are known as ________.
subtropical high; gyres
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