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Easy Chap 34: Plant Form & Function
Terms in this set (55)
Continue throughout life to extend root & shoot tips to find light essential simple compounds
Below ground part of plant; anchors plant & absorbs water & nutrients.
Above ground part of plant which absorbs light & CO2 needed for photosynthesis
Carries water & nutrients from roots to shoot
Carries sugars from photosynthetic parts of shoot downward to rest of plant
What are the functions of the root system?
2. Absorb water & ions from soil
3. Conduct water
4. Obtain E (sugar) from shoot & store it as starch
Primary root system that grows vertically down.
Fibrous roots system
Formed by thin, moderately branching roots growing from the stem
Examples of modified roots
1. Adventitious roots
3. Storage roots
Develop from shoot system instead of root system
a. aerial roots - on climbing ivy
b. prop roots - on corn
(Air roots) produced by trees growing in swampy habitats → acquire oxygen from atmosphere
Store E as starch which is used in next growing season to make flowering shoot.
Ex: carrot, turnit, beet
The shoot system
Consists of 1 or more stems
Where 1 or more leaves are attached
Segments between nodes
At tip of each stem or branch; growth extends length, may also develop into a flower
Axillary (or lateral) buds
Located right above leaf attachment; may grow into a new leaf or branch, or develop into a flower
Name the modified stems
1. Water storage stem
5. Thorns & Prickles
Water storage stem
Enlarged for water storage, also conducts photosynthesis
Horizontal stem that runs above ground; function in asexual reproduction.
Ex. St. Augustine grass, strawberry plant
Horizontal stem located below ground; can function in asexual reproduction.
Ex: ginger "root", many lilies
Rhizome modified as carbohydrate storage structures
ex. white potato
Thorns & Prickles
Modified stems for protection from herbivores
Ex. Rose, blackberry vine
Stalk which attaches blade to stem has bud at base.
Surface area for absorbing sunlight.
Blade is one piece (bud at base)
1 main vein arising from base with side veins branching off
> 1 main vein arising from base with side veins branching off
Blade divided into leaflets
Pairs of leaflets from central rachis
Leaflets all attached to petiole
Name the modified leaves
2. Succulent leaves
4. Colored bracts
6. insect traps
Set of thickened, nutrient storage leaves.
Ex. onion, garlic
Ex. aloe vera, jade plant
Ex. passion vine
Leaves modified to attract pollinators
Capture insects as nitrogen source
Ex. pitcher plant, Venus fly trap
Vegetative (asexual) reproduction
a. On outside surface of plant
b. 1 cell layer tick
c. shoot - produces waxy cutilce
d. root - absorbs water, root hair to increase surface area.
Starch storage and photosynthesis
Big cells within thin walls
1. store starch
2. may contain chloroplasts
Thick secondary cell wall (Lignin)
1. dead at maturity
2. rigid support
Name the basic structure of all leaves
3. Vascular bundles
Secretes waxy cuticle to prevent water loss; stomata for gas exchange
Contains parenchyma cells with chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
Xylem on top, phloem on bottom.
1. VB evenly spaced
2. stomata on both surfaces
3. Bulliform cells on upper surface
1. Two types of mesophyll
a Upper Palisade Mesophyll → tightly packed
b. Lower Spongy Mesophyll → Loose structure
2. Stomata on bottom surface only
a. Located around perimeter of stem.
b. Produces cork cells which replace the epidermis & protect vascular tissue beneath
Everything from the vascular cambium to the outer edge of the stem.
Located between Xylem and Phloem
a. Produces secondary xylem towards inside of stem (what we call wood)
b. Produces secondary phloem towards outside of stem
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chap 34: Plant Form and Function
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Easy Chap 28: Land Plants
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