Chapter 11 Psychology - Personality
Terms in this set (95)
Characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling
theory and therapy that focuses on unconscious processes
What we are aware of at any given moment; thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories
Memories we are not aware of but can easily bring to mind
repressed memories, instincts, wishes, and desires; have never been conscious
Contains life and death instincts, operates according to the pleasure principle
Logical, rational part of personality; operates according to the reality principle
Moral system of the personality; consists of conscience and ego ideal
Used by the ego to maintain self-esteem, and to defend against anxiety created by conflict between the id and superego. (Repression is most common)
Attributing one's own undesirable traits, thoughts, behavior, or impulses to another. ("YOU'RE AN ALCOHOLIC" - a drunk)
Refusing to acknowledge consciously the existence of danger or a threatening situation. (A smoker dismissing their lung failure)
Supplying a logical, rational, or socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action or event. ("I didn't pass because my teacher sucks at teaching.")
Reverting to a behavior that might have reduced anxiety at an earlier stage of development. (A 40 year old woman throwing a fit at Starbucks because her drink was made wrong and now she'll be late to work)
Expressing exaggerated ideas and emotions that are opposite of disturbing, unconscious impulses and desires. (A murderer being against the holocaust)
Substituting a less threatening object or person for the original object of a sexual or aggressive impulse (After getting busted at school for misbehaving, a kid goes home and punishes his dog harshly for no reason)
Rechanneling sexual and aggressive energy into pursuits or accomplishments that society considers acceptable or even admirable (Ron journals when he's mad at the world.)
When a person engages in a behavior that's in the complete opposite direction of the bad behavior (Stealing money then donating some to charity.)
Psychosexual Stages of Development (Freud)
The sex instinct is an important factor influencing personality; Develops through a series of stages
Takes place from birth to 1 year of age; fixation can lead to dependency and passivity or sarcasm and hostility. (Conflict: Weaning)
Takes place between 1 to 3 years of age; fixation can lead to excessive cleanliness and stinginess or messiness and rebelliousness. (Conflict: Toilet Training)
Takes place between 3-6 years of age; fixation can lead to flirtatiousness and promiscuity or excessive pride and chastity. (Conflict: Oedipus complex)
Lasts from age 5-6 years to puberty; period of sexual calm
Puberty and beyond; revival of sexual interests
Inherited tendencies to respond to universal human situations
When feelings of inferiority prevent personal development
Work centered on two main themes; The neurotic personality and feminine psychology; Rejected Freud's theory.
People have a natural tendency toward growth and realization of their fullest potential; Optimistic.
Proposed a hierarchy of needs that motivates our behavior; the highest need is self-actualization
Accurately perceive reality and quickly spot dishonesty; Tend not to depend on external authority.
Abraham Maslow Chart
Conditions of worth; Conditions on which positive regard depends, conditions of worth force us to live according to someone else's values (Your parents view of what you should be like)
Carl Rogers Therapy
Person-Centered Therapy; living by your own values
Unconditional Positive Regard
Unqualified caring and nonjudgmental acceptance; brings the client back in tune with self.
Fairly stable from childhood through late adulthood; age 7 most children have global awareness.
Attempt to explain differences among people
Personal characteristic that is stable across situations; used to describe personality
2 kinds of traits; cardinal trait and central trait
Something that describes you spot on
Something that describes you, but not as spot on as a cardinal trait
Surface traits and source triats
The observable qualities of personality
Cause surface traits to cluster together; underlie surface traits
psychotics, extraversion, neuroticism
An individual's link to reality
A dimension ranging from outgoing to shy
Emotional stability ranging from stable to anxious and irritable
The Five-Factor Model
Attempts to explain personality using 5 broad dimensions; Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism.
Behavioral Genetic Theory
Asserts that heredity is largely responsible for individual differences
Emphasis on yourself
Emphasis on social connectedness
Social Cognitive Theory
We learn our behaviors by observing others, and social interactions.
The Situation-Trait Debate: Walter Mischel
Stresses the importance of factors within the situation and person in accounting for behavior
a person's perception of his/her own ability to perform competently whatever is attempted
Persist in efforts, belief in success
Expect failure, avoid challenges
Internal Locus of Control
See selves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences
External Locus Control
Perceive events as in the hands of fate, luck, or chance
Used in schools, hospitals, and workplaces
Psychologists count and record the frequency of behaviors
Used for diagnosis and treatment (Going to the doctor's office/answering their questions)
The content of the questions and the way the questions are performed are carefully planned in advance.
Provide standardized format, focus on relevant traits
Paper and pencil test with questions about their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory
Used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders; mostly widely used inventory
Discerns those who are attempting to look healthier than they are and those attempting to appear disturbed
High scores exhibit an exaggerated concern about their physical health
High scorers are usually depressed, despondent, and distressed.
High scorers complain often about physical symptoms that have no apparent organic cause
High scorers show a disregard for social and moral standards
High scorers show "traditional" masculine or feminine attitudes and values
High scorers demonstrate extreme suspiciousness and feelings of persecution.
High scorers tend to be highly anxious, rigid, tense, and worrying.
High scorers tend to be socially withdrawn and to engage in bizarre and unusual thinking.
High scorers are usually emotional, excitable, energetic, and impulsive.
High scorers tend to be modest, self-effacing, and shy.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Based on Jung's theory of personality; measures normal individual differences on 4 personality dimensions; popular in businesses
Consists of inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations, or incomplete sentences; no correct or incorrect responses
Rorschach Inkblot Method
The test taker is asked to describe 10 inkblots; Responses can be used to diagnose disorders; results are dependent on the judgement of the examiner.
Thematic Apperception Test
Developed by Henry Murray; Consists of 1 blank card and 19 cards showing vague or ambiguous black and white drawings of human figures; Test taker describes the drawings.
Children's Apperception Test
TAT but for kids; humans are replaced with animals.
Senior Apperception Test
TAT but for elderly people; replaces humans with older people.
Human Figure Drawing Test
The test taker gets a piece of paper, and they have to draw a person; Reflects their thoughts
A long-standing inflexible, maladaptive pattern of behaving and relating to others, which usually begins in early childhood or adolescence
Characteristics of Personality Disorders
Difficult to get along with, unstable work and social histories, knows their behavior causes problems, blames other people; Must be 18 to diagnose.
Paranoid PD (Odd Behavior; Cluster A)
Highly suspicious, untrusting, guarded, hypersensitive, easily slighted, lacking emotion, holds grudges.
Schizoid PD (Odd Behavior; Cluster A)
Isolates self from others, appears unable to form emotional attachments, behavior may resemble that of autistic children.
Schizotypal PD (Odd Behavior; Cluster A)
Dresses in extremely unusual way, lacks social skills, may have odd ideas resembling schizophrenic delusions; "quirky"
Narcissistic (Cluster B)
Exaggerate sense of self importance and entitlement; self-centered, arrogant, demanding, envious; craves admiration and attention; lacks empathy
Histrionic (Cluster B)
Seeks attention and approval, craves excitement; Overly dramatic, self-centered, shallow, demanding, easily bored, manipulative, suggestible; Often and attractive and sexually seductive
Borderline (Cluster B) *
Unstable mood, behavior, self-image, and social relationships; Intense fear of abandonment; Exhibits impulsive, reckless behaviors and inappropriate anger; Makes suicidal gestures and self-mutilating acts
Disregard for and violation of others rights since age 15, as indicated by:
Failure to obey laws, lying, impulsive behavior, irritability and aggression, blatantly disregards safety, and irresponsible. (Must be 18)
Obessive-Compulsive (cluster C)
Perfectionistic, things must be done the "right" way; Relationships are emotionally shallow
Avoidant (Cluster C)
Fears criticism and rejection; Avoids social situations to prevent being judged by others
Dependent (Cluster C)
Overly dependent on others for advice and approval; Clings to lovers and friends; Fears abandonment