GS 1 TRI 2
Terms in this set (162)
Who are semetic speaking people form Arabia?
Who are nomadic tribes originally from northern Arabia who became important traders?
Who was the ruler of a Bedouin tribe?
Who were the council of elders among the Bedouins of the Roman Empire?
Pre Islamic Arabs were....
Where was Mohammed born?
Who was Khadijah?
Muhammad's wife and employer
Who are "The people of the book"
Christians, Jews, Muslims
What is Hegira
The flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina in 622
What is Medina known as?
The city of the prophet
What was the Muslim community as a whole during Hegira?
T or F: Mohammed is divine in the Islamic faith
What is the Muslim "Texts"
What is Ulama?
A group of leading Muslim scholars
What is a law code drawn up by Muslim scholars shortly following the death of Mohammed?
What is a collection of Mohammed's sayings that are in the Qur'an?
What are three of the seven behavioral requirements for Muslims?
No gambling, Can't eat pork, no drinking alcohol
Who was Mohammed's father in law who united the Arab empire?
What is a political leader of the Islamic community, believed by the Sunni's?
What is a religious leader of the Islamic community, believed by the Shi'ites?
What is a Jihad
A holy war
Why did the Arabs expand so quickly?
Drought, Islam's ability to unify, blackmailing
How did the Islamic people blackmail non believers
Either Higher Tax, convert, or be put to death
What is the order of the Caliphs?
Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Ma'uwia
When did the Islamic people begin to split?
When Ali was Caliph
What period was "The Golden Age of the Arab Empire"?
The Period of the Abbasids
Who was Charles Martel?
Frankish leader who defeated the Moors at the battle of Tours
Who was a descendant of Muhammad's uncle and Founder of the Abbasid Dynasty?
Who was the leader of the Abbasids during their Golden Age?
Harun Al Rashid
Who was al ma'mun
Harun al Rashids son, patron of learning, founded a astronomical observatory and established a foundation for translating Greek works
Under Abbasid Rule, Caliphs became more...
What is the council that advised the caliph under Abbasid rule?
Who was the prime minister under Abbasid Caliphate?
Who were Seljuk Turks?
Military Mercenaries/Nomads from Central Asia that captured Baghdad
What was a sultan
A "Holder Of Power" during the time of the Seljuk turks
What happened at the battle of Manzikert?
The Turks defeated the Byzantine Empire
What were the Crusades?
A holy war/military campaign during the Middle Ages in defense of Christendom
Why was Turkish Rule beneficial?
Controlled Sunni-Shi'ite disputes
Who started the assassins and who were they?
Hasan al Sabahh started them, they were a group of rebels who terrorized government officials for years
Why was Andalusia's dominance short lived?
Cordoba was destroyed and eventually it broke up into city states
Who was Pope Innocent III?
Pope who called for a new crusade to destroy Muslim Rule I'm Souther Spain in the 12th century
What was Muslim religion based on?
Behavior and Belief
What guides all areas of life for the Islam's?
Who were Caliphs selected by?
T or F- Islamic society was Egilatarian
True- but they treated women poorly
Who was Ibn Sina?
He was a huge developer in the field of academics, in math he passed on the numerical system with the use of 0, he founded algebra, and came up with Arabic numbers. In Astronomy he created a world map and Observatory in Baghdad, he knew the earth was round, and used Maps for trade routes.
What were the living conditions in Islamic Civilization?
Wealthy had multistoried houses, poor lived on clay or unfired brick homes, somewhat urban but mostly rural
What are the Five Pillars Of Faith? (In Order)
1. Belief in Allah and Mohammed as his prophet
2. Prayer 5 times a day and public prayer Friday at midday
3. Zakat- Giving Alms to the poor
4- Fast from sunrise to sunset for Ramadan
5. Haij- Pilgrimage To Mecca every Muslim mist make at least once in their lifetime
What was the African religion before Islam?
Pantheism- Belief in a single creator god from whom all things came.
Who were the Ashanti people?
People of Ghana who believed in Nymae (Supreme god of Ashanti, whose sons were all lesser gods: Rainmaker, compassion, sunshine.)
Where did the Arabs move the capital of Egypt to when they seized Egypt in 641?
Romans undertook a new province and called it....
When the Arabs seized Carthage in 690 what did they call Northern Africa?
What was considered the "Land Of Gold"?
What is considered "The Golden Age" Of Indian History?
The Gupta Empire
Who founded the Gupta Dynasty?
Chandragupta (Not to be mistaken with Chandragupta Maurya)
Who was Chandragupta's successor? What did he do?
Samudragupta. He took over the Kushans and other kingdoms which expanded the Gupta
Who was the greatest Kushan Monarch?
Why did Ghana collapse in 1200?
Due to war with Berbers
T or F, Mansa Musas real name is Mansa Musa
False, Mansa is a title given to a chieftain who is both a religious and administrative leader
Mansa Musa was the King of.....
Mali, and he was a big supporter of the Muslim faith.
What are some of the accomplishments of Mansa Musa?
- Encouraged the building of mosques and study of the Qur'an
- Imported scholars to teach
- Considered to be the richest man in the history of the world
What did Mansa Musa turn Timbuktu into?
An intellectual and cultural center.
What was considered the "Classical age" of Indian Civilization?
Also the Gupta Empire
Why was the Gupta a "Golden Age"?
- Thriving Commerce with China, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean
- Cities developed
- Religious centers grew
- The Guptas controlled a lot of trade
What controlled all aspects of the economy during the Gupta Dynasty?
What spread during the Kushan Kingdom?
What is a Bamiyan?
Site of sandstone cliff statues
When the sources of Siddharta Guatama were re-interpreted, there was two groups called the...
Theravada and Mahayana
Theravada said you can only achieve Nirvana through.....
The Mahayana ideal is
Mahayana's referred to Theravada as
Hinayana (Lesser Vehichle)
Mahayana Provided hope for the....
T or F, theravada believed only Siddharta was Bodhisattva
Avaloekitesvara's (The mythic figure) name in Sanskrit means...
Lord of Compassion
Who was Guan Yin?
Female figure Avalokitesvara transformed into
What are three of the Mahayana beliefs?
- Buddhism as a religion not a philosophy
- Buddha was divine
- Nirvana was true heaven
Brahmanism transformed into...
Hinduism (A religion with rituals that appeased all classes)
What is a populist tradition focused on personal worship that began to replace the Brahmanical emphasis on court sacrifice and asceticism during the early centuries of the first millennium?
The state of Ghanzi was in...
Afghanistan/Old Kushan Kingdom
Who was the greatest Ghanzi ruler?
What Dynasty from the Delhi Sultanate extended into the Deccan Plateau?
What is Tamerlane's real name?
Timer (He is also known as Timur the lame, he was shot with an arrow)
What did Tamerlane mix (Heritage wise)?
Turko- Mongolian heritage
What two challenges came after Tamerlanes death
Who was the greatest Mongolian ruler?
What are some differences between Hinduism and Islam?
- Polytheistic (H) vs Monotheistic (I)
- Hierarchal (H) vs Egilitarian (I)
- priestly class (H) vs None but God (I)
What is the Indian term for the practice among Muslims and some Hindu's of Isolating women and preventing them from associating with men outside the home?
Islamic Practices effected ________ more
The upper class
What is the religion that combines Hindu and Muslim faith? Who founded them?
Sikhs, founded by Nanak
What was the main belief of Sikhism?
God was the single true reality, all else is illusion
Members of the Turkic ruling class were equivalent to....
Brahmins or Kshatriyas
Most Islamic people were....
Farmers (Cotton major export)
Who were the Parsis
Persians who practiced Zoroastrianism and dominated banking and textile industry
Who was the famous Islam astronomer and what did he do?
Aryabhata, calculated pi, measured year over 365 days, replaced Roman numerals
Who were relatively obscure pastoral people in the area of modern day Outer Mongolia?
What were the mongols considered to be in during the 12th century before Genghis Khan?
In a "State Of Stress"
What is Genghis Khans real name?
What was Genghis Khan's "Drive"?
His father was murdered when he was young so he basically raised himself
Who is the founder of Mongolian greatness?
What did Genghis Khan say was "Man's Highest Joy"?
Conquer ones enemies, deprive them of their possessions, make their beloved weep, to ride on their horses, and embrace their wives and daughters.
T or F- Genghis Khans real name is Genghis Khan...
F, Genghis is a term given to a universal leader, which he was elected in 1206
What did Genghis make the Capital?
Before Genghis the Mongols lived a.....
What happened to the territory after Genghis' death?
The territory divided into Khanates which were mongol kingdoms ruled by Genghis Khan's heirs
Who was Khubilai Khan?
Completed the conquest of the song and founded the Yuan Dynasty
Where did Khubilai Khan move the capital to?
What does "Pax Mongolia" Mean?
It is a theory that the time of the mongols was a time of prosperity, even though thousands were killed
T or F- Although the Mongols were brutal, they still got the majority support from the Chinese...
Why did the Yuan Dynasty end?
they tried to conquer Japan and got swept away by the divine wind (Kamikaze)
T or F- The mongols were the last great nomads from Central Asia...
What is the time of the Mongols portrayed as and what is the only peace that historians said enemies felt?
The time of the Mongols was a tragic period full of destruction and death and the only peace the enemies felt was the peace of death
Who was Zhu Yuanzhang?
Ended the Yuan regime and founded the Ming dynasty
During the Ming Dynasty, where did China Extend their rule?
Mongolia, Central Asia, and Vietnam
What did Emperor Yongle do?
Strengthened the Great Wall, pacified the nomadic tribes, and funded exploration
Which Chinese admiral lead voyages through the strait of Malacca and out into the Indian Ocean?
How big was Zenghe's personal fleet?
28,000 sailors on 62 ships
What were Zenghe's ships called?
Why did Zenghe go on his voyages?
Goods and information
Who was Yongle's predecessor and what did he do?
Emperor Jianwen and he exiled to Southeast Asia
When did the voyages end?
After Emperor Yongle's death
Emperor Jianwen moved the capital from Nanjing to....
When Buddhism declined what happened?
A new form of Confucianism came along, Neo-Confucianism
What are some of the Characteristics Of Neo- Confucianism?
It united the metaphysical speculations of Buddhism and Daoism with a Confucian approach, the world is real, fulfillment comes from participation
Who was Zhu Xi?
A scholar who accepted the division of the world into material and transcendent
What is the Supreme Ultimate?
A transcendent (Other) world in which humans aspire to live in. They had a set of abstract principles equivalent to the Dao, they were governed by the yin, yang, and five elements, and humans were the link
Who was Wang Yangming?
Confucian scholar who thought the real way to transcend to the material world was an understanding of self
What is the theory that mind and the universe were a single unit and knowledge was obtained through self searching rather than investigation of the outside world
School of Mind
How long was it before they started to explore again after Zenghe?
What is the order of the dynasties (In this Chp)?
Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming
During the division and period of Civil War, Northern China Was
During the period of Division and civil war, southern China was...
The era of six dynasties
Confucian values were replaced with...
Concepts of Salvation and Daoism
Who was the Founder of the Sui Dynasty and what did he do?
Yang Jian (AKA Sui Wendi) he used Buddhism and Daoism to unite the people, established capital at Chang'an, started construction of grand canal
Who was Yang Jians successor and what did he do?
Sui Yangdi, built a grand canal which was 1400 Miles between the yangzte and Yellow rivers
When did the Sui Dynasty end?
Right after Sui Yangdi's death
Who was the founder of the Tang Dynasty?
Who was Li Yuan's son who brought the Tang to its height?
Which Tang emperor was a renowned patron of the arts?
Who was the concubine that dominated Xuanzong later in life?
Who was the military adventurer who seized Chang'an in 755?
Who founded the Song Dynasty?
Who were the northern nomads that lead to the fall of the Tang?
What was the capital to the east during the Song?
What was the South capital during the Song?
What was more successful during the Song- Kaifeng (East) or Hangzhou (South)?
What was the top of the government at this time?
The Grand Council
During this time they believed in...
State Confucianism and politics established during the Qin and Han Dynasties
What was the benefits to the Civil Service Exam?
Reduced power of nobility by limiting relatives and became a primary route to a official career
What were the three levels of the civil service exam?
- Qualifying at provincial capital for local position
- 2nd exam at the capital every 3 years for an official position
- Final exam at the imperial palace every three years for a high position
Who were people who passed the civil service exam and whose families were nonaristocratic landowners?
What was a district called?
What was the basis of Chinese economy?
What was the system in which land was allocated to farmers for life in return for tax and labor?
The Well-field system
What was the result of the well-field system?
The wealthy acquired huge plots of land so the government eventually returned land to private hands
Who attempted to limit the size of landholdings through progressive land taxes and provided cheap credit to farmers so they wouldn't go bankrupt?
When did trade along the Silk Road reach its height?
What did empress Wu Zhao do?
Tried to limit the power of great families through the civil service exam
What was the most important virtue?
Empress Wu Zhao succeeded...
What was foot binding?
Process of compressing girls (Age 5-15) feet to half their natural size which represented discipline and the ideal wife