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44 terms

Environmental Studies Chp. 1, 2, and 3 Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
culture
that which is not nature
environment
conditions or circumstances surrounding a group of organisms
environmental science
systematic study of our environment and our proper place in it
science
a process for producing knowledge methodically and logically
uniformitarianism
the present is the key to the past
parsimony
if two explanations are reasonable, the simplest is the best
empiricism
learn through observable phenomena
state of a system
a set of important attributes that characterize a system at a particular time
couplings
links between system components
components
individual parts of a system
system
an entity composed of diverse but inter-related parts that function as a complex whole
positive coupling
a change in one component is a stimulus that leads to a change in the same direction in the linked component
feedback loops
two couplings represent a "round trip"
feedback
a self perpetuating mechanism of change and a response to that change
positive feedback
reinforces a trend
negative feedback
reverses a trend
ecology
the scientific relationship between organisms and their environment
matter
takes up space and has mass
elements
make up matter
oxidation
when an atom gives up one or more electrons
reduction
when an atom gains electrons
latent heat
the energy required to build or break molecular bonds
energy
the ability to do work
work
the product of the component of the force along the direction of displacement and the magnitude of the displacement
first law of thermodynamics
energy is conserved in a system
entropy
a measure of unavailable energy
economic nationalism
the policy that encourages the aggressive accumulation of wealth on national levels
chemosynthesis
producing food from chemicals
populations
all members of a single species that live in a given area
community
all of the populations of organisms that live and interact with each other at a given time
ecosystem
a self-sustaining interaction between communities in a certain geographical area
biome
a region with a characteristic plant community
autotrophs
capture energy
phototrophs
producers who use light to produce food
chemotrophs
finds energy in inorganic, chemical compounds
heterotrophs
get energy by ingesting bodies of other living organisms
primary consumers
herbivores
secondary consumers
carnivores
tetiary consumers
carnivores that eat carnivores
scavengers
those that feed on dead animals
decomposers
those that feed on parts of dead organisms and consume waste products of dead and of living organisms
range of tolerance
limiting factors where they can survive
biodiversity
the number of species living in an area
geologic paleoclimate data
indicates that temperatures carry the most in polar regions and vary least in tropical regions