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PSYC 602 Exam 2 Questions

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Which of the following is part of the human vocal apparatus?
Hippocampus
Frontalis
Trachea
All of the above
C Trachea
What is escalation of force, and how could this relate to war between humans?

A. Escalation of force is the idea that force naturally builds as kinetic energy is repeatedly applied/transferred to another person in the context of physical altercations. Accordingly, the individual who is hit the most experiences the worse pain because they have experienced the most escalated force. This relates to war in that nations who are repeatedly "beaten upon" physically, politically, economically, etc. might eventually be in such national pain/turmoil that they might start a war.

B. Escalation of force is the idea that humans perceive forces coming from without (i.e., from another human) differently than forces coming from within (i.e., from ourselves) and that often people perceive force from another as stronger/worse than what they did or would have done. This mismatch between the perception of force that is applied and the perception of force that is received might be the basis of many escalations, including war. Humans might start a war because the act of another nation is viewed as overly cruel; the other person "hit harder" so offensive action is required. This creates a cycle of each nation perceiving the other nations acts as worse and requiring offensive action.

C. Although escalation of force and war are related topics, none of the above explanations explain this relationship.

D. Escalation of force and war are unrelated topics.
B. Escalation of force is the idea that humans perceive forces coming from without (i.e., from another human) differently than forces coming from within (i.e., from ourselves) and that often people perceive force from another as stronger/worse than what they did or would have done. This mismatch between the perception of force that is applied and the perception of force that is received might be the basis of many escalations, including war. Humans might start a war because the act of another nation is viewed as overly cruel; the other person "hit harder" so offensive action is required. This creates a cycle of each nation perceiving the other nations acts as worse and requiring offensive action.
According to evolutionary psychology, what is emotion?

A. Emotion is a response to indicate whether our goals are being helped or hindered.

B. Emotion is the affective component of motivation.

C. Emotion is a response to cognition.

D. A and B

E. B and C
D. A and B

A. Emotion is a response to indicate whether our goals are being helped or hindered.

B. Emotion is the affective component of motivation.
Which of the following is false about laughter?

A. Laughter leads to physiological relaxation.

B. Laughter tends to be contagious.

C. Laughter only occurs in response to humor.

D. Laughter between friends tends to become synced.

E. None of the above are false; the statements are all true.
C. Laughter only occurs in response to humor.
Why do some researchers suggest that mirror neurons are crucial to the development of modern humans?

A. Without mirror neurons, major milestones in the evolution of humans including the use of tools, the creation of fire, and the cooking of food would never have occurred.

B. Without mirror neurons, some humans might have discovered how to use tools, create fire, and cook food, but these skills would not have transferred to all humans because humans could not imitate without mirror neurons. If humans had not learned these skills, we might not have evolved the same way.

C. Without mirror neurons, humans would never be able to recognize their reflections, so they would not be able to recognize that other humans are like them. Thus, the social groups that are so crucial to human survival would never have formed, and humans would have died out.

D. Mirror neurons are not crucial to the development of modern humans.
B. Without mirror neurons, some humans might have discovered how to use tools, create fire, and cook food, but these skills would not have transferred to all humans because humans could not imitate without mirror neurons. If humans had not learned these skills, we might not have evolved the same way.
The 1992 study by Buss, Larsen, Weston, & Semmelroth on sex differences in jealousy found that:

A. more women experience more jealousy over emotional infidelity, while more men experience more jealousy over sexual infidelity.

B. more women experience more jealousy over sexual infidelity, while more men experience more jealousy over emotional infidelity.

C. no sex differences in jealousy exist between men and women

D. none of the above
A. more women experience more jealousy over emotional infidelity, while more men experience more jealousy over sexual infidelity.
According to the article "Sex Differences in Jealousy: Evolution, Physiology, and Psychology," how do males and females differ in their patterns of jealousy?
A. Males experience more overall jealousy while in a committed relationship
B. Females experience more overall jealousy while in a committed relationship
C. Males are more jealous of emotional infidelity while females are more jealous of sexual infidelity
D. Males are more jealous of sexual infidelity while females are more jealous of emotional infidelity
D. Males are more jealous of sexual infidelity while females are more jealous of emotional infidelity
Laughter has the effect of...
A. Increasing Social Bonds
B. Helping in Conflict Resolution
C. Reducing Blood Pressure
D. All of the Above
D. All of the Above
In regard to laughter, what is the "Contagion Effect"?
A. When a contagious virus makes it impossible to laugh
B. When mirror neurons cause us to mimic the activity we see other people doing and thus laugh
C. When neurons in the brain do impact a person's ability to laugh
D. None of the Above
B. When mirror neurons cause us to mimic the activity we see other people doing and thus laugh
According to the article "The Many Faces of Leadership: An Evolutionary-Psychology Approach," leaders with attractive faces are generally more likely to do well in...
A. Entertainment
B. Mating
C. Politicss and Business
D. Healthcare Fields
C. Politicss and Business
According to Pinker, which of the following is a sphere of morality?
A. Autonomy
B. Community
C. Divinity
D. All of the Above
D. All of the Above
1) What were the findings of reading group 3's article?

i. Men were more bothered by sexual infidelity.

ii. Women were equally as bothered by sexual infidelity as men.

iii. Men were not bothered by emotional infidelity.

iv. Women were more bothered by emotional infidelity.

a. i. & ii.

b. i. & iv.

c. all of the above were findings of the study

d. all of the above were findings except for ii.
B. i. & iv.

i. Men were more bothered by sexual infidelity.
iv. Women were more bothered by emotional infidelity.
2) What are some reasons we discussed in class for why risk taking behaviors may be selected for?

a. chicks dig it

b. risky behavior can result in an adrenaline rush, which has the physiological effect of making us stronger and faster

c. adrenaline may be associated with euphoria upon completion and survival of a risky behavior

d. all of the above
D. all of the above
What statements about laughter are NOT true?

i. laughter between friends tends to become synced

ii. most laughter is in response to humor

iii. laughter strengthens social bonds

iv. meetings tend to go poorly when they begin with laughter because parties get offended by one another

a. all of the above

b. none of the above

c. i. & ii.

d. ii. & iv.
D. ii. & iv.

ii. most laughter is in response to humor
iv. meetings tend to go poorly when they begin with laughter because parties get offended by one another
What is an example of a sensation?

a. seeing the color blue

b. activating touch receptors in your finger when your hand contacts a surface

c. tasting vanilla ice cream

d. all of the above
B. activating touch receptors in your finger when your hand contacts a surface
When we see someone else laugh, the neurons in our brains mimic the laughter—that is why laughter tends to be contagious. This is due to _____________.

a. Mirror Neurons
b. Laughter Neurons
c. The Brain Stem
d. The Occipital Lobe
A. Mirror Neurons
What are evolutionary explanations for why people laugh?

a. It reduces blood pressure
b. It increases social bonds
c. It is effective for negotiations
d. It is pleasurable
e. All of the above
E. all of the above
What is the "Kind Uncle" theory?

a. Kinder Uncles live longer.
b. One can support the growth of a baby that is not theirs.
c. Some babies like their uncles more than their fathers.
d. Aunts are not as kind as Uncles.
B. One can support the growth of a baby that is not theirs.
What is the phenomenon called when there is an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception, and the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound?

a. Availability Heuristic
b. Attribution Theory
c. Audio-visual confusion
d. The McGurk Effect
D. the McGurk Effect
Evolutionarily, it appears that humans are moving towards species with more ___________ power and less _________ power

a. Physical; Intellectual
b. Intellectual; Physical
c. Hunter gatherer; Emotional
d. Physical; Sensory
B. Intellectual; Physical
According to the Pinker article which of these are condemning emotions
a. Elevation
b. Contempt
c. Sympathy
d. Shame
B. Contempt
What does the ethic of autonomy pertain to?
A. An individual's interests and rights
B. More of the social group
C. A sense of exalted purity and holiness
D. Both A and C
D. Both A and C

A. An individual's interests and rights
C. A sense of exalted purity and holiness
What is/are the fundamental problem of memory?
a. Data management
b. Data Retrieval
c. Data Recovery
d. Data Organization
e. Both A and B
E Both A and B

a. Data management
b. Data Retrieval
What is the best answer for what learning is, according to Chapter 8?
a. Learning can be different for different people
b. Mechanism designed to solve real world problems.
c. The modification of behavior by experience.d.
d. None of the above
C The modification of behavior by experience
Just like yawning is contagious what other act is contagious that we verified in class?
a. Crying
b. Sleeping
c. Sneezing
d. Laughing
D Laughing
3. True or False: Theory of Mind is necessary to develop empathy but not sufficient.

a. True

b. false
True
1) According to Keltner what is the MOST basic fact of laughter?

A) Laughter is social

B) Laughter improves health

C) Laughter relaxes

D) Laughter is a human need
A Laughter is social
2) In the Classical Conditioning experiment conducted by Pavlov what did the bell represent?

A) UR

B) CR

C) US

D) CS
D CS
3) In the Classical Conditioning experiment conducted by Pavlov what did the salivation represent?

A) UR

B) CR

C) CS

D) Both A & B
D Both A & B

A) UR

B) CR
4) According to G & McB, learning mechanisms are designed to solve particular real-world problems, which makes them specialized.

A) True

B) False
True
5) According to G & McB, a Critical-Period Learning is specialized to happen once, usually early life, and then be resistant to revision.

A) True

B) False
True
1. Keltner stated about laughter that it is social, contagious, produces a remarkable physical state, and is intertwined with our _______
A. Mood
B. Sense of irony
C. Vocal cords
D. Breathing
D. Breathing
2. According to Pinker, which of the following is NOT part of the three spheres of morality that pertain to moral judgement?
A. Autonomy
B. Reasoning
C. Community
D. Divinity
B. Reasoning
3. Why does Trivers claim that reciprocal altruism can spread only if altruism is not shown to cheaters?
A. If altruism were shown to cheaters, they would not repay favors to their altruistic neighbors when the latter needed help, causing the altruistic neighbor to die off
B. Cheaters do not participate in receiving or showing altruism
C. When people chose to be altruistic, the costs they experience must be relatively small
D. None of the above
A. If altruism were shown to cheaters, they would not repay favors to their altruistic neighbors when the latter needed help, causing the altruistic neighbor to die off
4. According to Miller's chapter, 'Bodies of evidence', which of the following explains why human female breasts evolved to their current large state in comparison to other primates?
A. To distinguish young women from older women
B. They are pretty good indicators of fat reserves
C. They are good fitness indicators because they come in symmetric pairs
D. A & C
E. All of the above
E All of the above

A. To distinguish young women from older women
B. They are pretty good indicators of fat reserves
C. They are good fitness indicators because they come in symmetric pairs
5. What do Ryan and Jetha NOT propose as a reason why sperm counts in human males have plummeted in recent times?
A. heavier exposure to estrogen-like compounds, like those found in soybeans
B. present-day women are choosing to mate with men who have comparatively lower testosterone levels, creating offspring with lower testosterone levels
C. growth hormones in cattle
D. chemicals found in plastics
B. present-day women are choosing to mate with men who have comparatively lower testosterone levels, creating offspring with lower testosterone levels
1. Laughter uses the same musculature as vowels and consonants.

A.) True

B.) False
FALSE
2. Moral reasoning is the highest form of logic.

A. True

B. False
False
3. Which of the following is not a reason that risk-taking behaviors have not died out?

A.) High risks may lead to high reward

B.) It may signal courage to potential mates

C.) Risk-taking behaviors are not often dangerous.

D.) Risk-taking males are more attractive in the short-term
C. Risk-taking behaviors are not often dangerous.
4. Theory of Mind is sufficient for empathy.

A.) True

B.) False
False
5. Which of the following is a possible explanation for why men, but not women, need to experience a committed sexual relationship in order to experience distress at the prospect of infidelity?

A.) Men need more experience to notice things.

B.) Men are less empathetic than women and thus, they may not imagine novel situations as vividly.

C.) Women are more easily distressed.

D.) Men are less concerned with infidelity.
B. Men are less empathetic than women and thus, they may not imagine novel situations as vividly.
When do mirror neurons fire?

A. when you look in the mirror

B. new research have proven that mirror neurons do not really exist

C. when you watch someone else do something

D. when you do the given action
C. when you watch someone else do something
Which is an example the gambler's fallacy?

A. predicting tails when a coin is flipped because it was tails five times in a row previously

B. predicting tails when a coin is flipped because it was heads five times in a row previously

C. predicting a different outcome every single time

D. being too scared to gamble because you know the odds are not in your favor
A. predicting tails when a coin is flipped because it was tails five times in a row previously
In the classic Pavlovian experiment, what is the conditioned stimulus?

A. the dog's saliva

B. the food

C. the bell

D. none of the above
C. the bell
What determines if an action is considered moral or not?

A. Dr. Charlie Wiss

B. the president

C. the big book of morality

D. your emotions
D. your emotions
Who reports more distress because of a partner's sexual infidelity than a partner's emotional infidelity?

A. men

B. women

C. both equally

D. this has not been tested
A. men
1. Which of the following is a sphere of morality?

a. authority

b. community

c. spirituality

d. family
B. community
2. According to "Sex Differences in Jealousy," male jealousy will

a. increase as his partner's age increase

b. stay the same throughout his life

c. decrease as his partner's age increases
C. decrease as his partner's age increases
3. According to "The Many faces of Leadership," which facial features will convey trustworthiness?

a. masculine features like a strong jawline

b. older-looking faces

c. facial symmetry

d. feminine features like a round face and big eyes
D. feminine features like a round face and big eyes
4. Which of the following is not true of laughter?

a. it relaxes the body

b. it is primarily a response to humor

c. it almost always occurs in social situations

d. women tend to laugh more than men
B. it is primarily a response to humor
5. True or False: Males are more distressed by a sexual infidelity if they have been in a committed sexual relationship before.
True
Which scenario listed below illustrates the Kind Uncle theory?
a. Kent doesn't feel the need to have children of his own because his sister, Tina, can pass off their family's genes.
b. Robert takes special care of his nephews because they are his family.
c. Gene sees his sister's children, which makes him want to have kids of his own.
d. None of the above.
A Kent doesn't feel the need to have children of his own because his sister, Tina, can pass off their family's genes.
What is the name of the phenomenon that shows the interaction between hearing and vision in the perception of speech?
a. Pygmalion effect
b. McGurk effect
c. Bystander effect
d. Spotlight effect
e. Kuleshov effect
B McGurk effect
According to the Keltner article, what is one thing that happens when somebody laughs with you?
a. Negative emotions because of disconnection
b. Increased levels of stress
c. The formation of a romantic relationship
d. The formation of social bonds
D The formation of social bonds
Which of the following statements about laughter is/are correct?
a. Laughter is most often a social phenomenon.
b. Laughter almost always leads to physical relaxation.
c. Laughter has shown to increase social bonds.
d. Laughter tends to be contagious.
e. All of the above.
E

a. Laughter is most often a social phenomenon.
b. Laughter almost always leads to physical relaxation.
c. Laughter has shown to increase social bonds.
d. Laughter tends to be contagious.
In what mating situations do women prefer men who are identified as risk-takers?
a. Short-term mating situations
b. Long-term mating situations
c. Both short-term and long-term mating situations.
d. Women do not prefer men who are risk-takers.
A. Short-term mating situations
According to Vugt and Grabo (2015), masculine faces are seen as less ____, but more _____.
a. Competent, Dominant
b. Dominant, Attractive
c. Attractive, Trustworthy
d. Trustworthy, Dominant
D. Trustworthy, Dominant
Men were more likely to report distress to sexual and emotional infidelity (Buss et al., 1992)
a. True
b. False
True

false
Innate behaviors are _____ over the history of the species natural selection, whereas learned behaviors are _____ by various experiences over the lifetime of individuals.
a. Preprogrammed, Learned
b. Shaped, Preprogrammed
c. Learned, Taught
d. Learned, Preprogrammed
A. Preprogrammed, Learned
Deprivation experiments have provided some of the best support of innateness and shown that not ALL behaviors depend on experience
True
False
False
What are the three spheres of morality according to the trichotomy?
a. Purity, Consequences, and Honesty
b. Morality, Community, and Consequences
c. Morality, Community, and Divinity
d. Divinity, Purity, and Honesty
C. Morality, Community, and Divinity
1. Which of the following four traits is unlikely to evolve via group selection?

A: Cooperative

B: Selfish

C: Spiteful

D: Altruistic
D. Altruistic
2. Which of the following best defines Rosch's concept of typicality?

A: We are more likely to group with others who are like us

B: The recognition that some items are more and some items are less central to a category

C: The idea that we are more familiar with things that we encounter more frequently

D: The concept that one is a representative of the whole
B. The recognition that some items are more and some items are less central to a category
3. Our learning of language is less instinctive and more learned than the migration of birds.

A: True

B: False
False
. For classical conditioning to occur, Is contiguity necessary, sufficient, both, or neither?

A: Necessary

B: Sufficient

C: Both

D: Neither
D Neither
5. Which of the following is not an effect that tempers our ability to remember things?

A: Practice

B: Retention

C: Temporal

D: Spacing
C Temporal
What are the 3 spheres of morality?
a. Autonomy, community, and divinity.
b. Autonomy, unity, and community.
c. Unity, community, and consistency.
d. Unity, individuality, and autonomy.
A Autonomy, community, and divinity.
What does the shudder test refer to?
a. It refers to the physiological reaction someone, and it is used to determine whether or not something is disgusting.
b. It refers to the immediate, gut reaction one has, and it may cause them to believe a situation is immoral.
c. It refers to the tendency for humans to accurately determine the morality of a situation.
d. None of the above.
B It refers to the immediate, gut reaction one has, and it may cause them to believe a situation is immoral.
Can human memory be considered efficient? Why or why not?
a. Yes, humans have been able to survive and adapt primarily due to their efficient memories.
b. Yes, human memory has evolved to retain important information and discard useless information.
c. No, human memory would only be efficient if everyone possessed a "photographic memory."
d. No, human memory cannot be considered efficient because useless items of memory are often retained whereas important items may be forgotten.
D No, human memory cannot be considered efficient because useless items of memory are often retained whereas important items may be forgotten.
Which of the following statements is false about laughter?
a. Laughter always follows humor.
b. Laughter is a great vehicle for cooperation.
c. One study found that measures of laughter and smiling reduced grief after loss.
d. None of the above statements are false.
A Laughter always follows humor.
Which of the following statements are true about laughter?
a. It is about 30 times more likely to happen in a social situation than in solitude.
b. Laughter causes the body to enter a period of relaxation.
c. The act of laughter is physical, and involved with breathing.
d. All of the above
D All of the above
Which of the following is not a reason for why diseases might be more prevalent in today's society?

a. Old age
b. Strains that have evolved to resist drugs
c. Urbanization
d. Immunizations
D Immunizations
Emotions are a cognitive effect.

True

False
False
Which of the following statements would Keltner agree with about laughter?

a. Unvoiced laughs are contagious and create bonds
b.Laughter is almost always a social thing and does not actually have to be a response to humor
c. Voice laughs are not contagious and actually deter social interaction
d. Laughter is not an essential element in social interaction
B Laughter is almost always a social thing and does not actually have to be a response to humor
Which of the following is not considered a benefit of laughter?

Increases social bonds

Reduces blood pressure

Helpful in conflict resolution

Ineffective in negotiations
D Ineffective in negotiations
Which of the following people would it be most beneficial for them to engage in risk taking behaviors while trying to attract a potential mate? (assume for this example that the person is seeking a heterosexual relationship)

A 50 year old woman

A 50 year old male

A 17 year old male

A 17 year old female
C A 17 year old male
What are the primary leader attributes that are associated with specific facial cues?


I.Dominance

II.Trustworthiness

III.Intelligence

IV.Attractiveness/ health

V.Competence



I, II, III, V only
I, III, V only
I, II, IV, V
All of the above
C I, II, IV, V

I.Dominance
II.Trustworthiness
IV.Attractiveness/ health
V.Competence
If a candidate for a leadership position exhibits an older age and a "baby-faced" appearance, what leadership attribute would be assigned to him/her and what adaptive domain would he/she be perceived to be most competent within?



a. Competence; knowledge
b. Trustworthiness; knowledge
c.Competence; cooperation/peace
d. Trustworthiness; cooperation/peace
A Competence; knowledge
In the article we read about jealousy, which aspect of infidelity did men show higher rates of jealousy toward, and what was the hypothesis as to why?



a. Emotional infidelity; men were more emotionally attached in relationships than women
b.Neither; men associated emotional infidelity with sexual infidelity and were equally jealous over both
c. Sexual infidelity; men had a natural tendency to be jealous over sexual infidelity due to paternal insecurity when a pregnancy occurred
d. Sexual infidelity; men's egos were more hurt when they were dismissed sexually rather than emotionally
C Sexual infidelity; men had a natural tendency to be jealous over sexual infidelity due to paternal insecurity when a pregnancy occurred
What profession did we discuss in class as having higher rates psychopathic traits?



Lawyers
Surgeons
Teachers
Police Officers
B Surgeons
On the discussion forum there is a thread about the evolutionary adaptiveness of crying, and specifically why we often feel better after we cry. What did several of the listed articles indicate about why crying can often make someone feel better?



a. It can lead to support from those around them (in small groups of those close to you)
b. It can simply exhaust your energy
c.Tears often release certain hormones and proteins that are responsible for reducing pain
d. Both A and C
D Both A and C
Which of the following is not a proposed hypothesis of the purpose of laughter?
a.laughter rewards mutually beneficial exchanges
b.laughter serves to reduce tension
c.laughter is a sign of denial or trauma
d.laughter helps to gain a broader perspective of the human condition
C laughter is a sign of denial or trauma
Which is not a counterexample to the laughter as cooperation hypothesis?
a. torturers laugh at victims
b. victims laughing as they are tortured
c. glory as deformed thing in another
d. bullies laugh at aggressive acts of humiliation
B victims laughing as they are tortured
What are fast and frugal heuristics or examples of such?
a. bigger than a hawk = blue jay
b. ways to solve real-world problems quickly with a small amount of information
c. overestimating frequency of things that come to mind
d. selecting something you have not heard of over something you have as an answer to a question
B ways to solve real-world problems quickly with a small amount of information
When does learning occur?
a. when experience is modified by behavior
b. when innate behaviors are shaped
c. when behavior is modified by experience
d. when learned behaviors are adapted
C when behavior is modified by experience
What does the ease of learning a task depend on?
a. how innate it is
b. how well it matches a real-world situation
c. the critical learning period
d. by vector summing
B how well it matches a real-world situation
1. Which of the following does NOT apply to laughter?

A. Social Phenomenon

B. Mirror Neurons

C. Important in Negotiations

D. None of the above
D None of the above
2. The jealousy response study discussed in groups came to the conclusion that

A. Men are more likely to be affected by emotional jealousy

B. Men and women both had similar responses to the two types of jealousy

C. Women are more likely to be affected by emotional jealousy

D. Those who have not been in committed relationship rank higher distress over sexual jealousy
C Women are more likely to be affected by emotional jealousy
3. When a group needs a leader for change and innovation, they would more likely choose

A. a younger candidate

B. an older candidate

C. a stern-faced candidate from an out-group

D. all are possible options
A a younger candidate
4. In classical conditioning, which of the following variables represent the same thing?

A. Unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus

B. Unconditioned response and conditioned response

C. Unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response

D. Conditioned stimulus and conditioned response
B Unconditioned response and conditioned response
5. Why were hummingbirds better at shift learning than stay learning

A. They couldn't remember where the rewards were located

B. Food patterns are unpredictable in the wild

C. Both are true

D. None of the above
B. Food patterns are unpredictable in the wild
T/F: Evidence suggests that the likelihood of having a homosexual son increases as the number of male children in a family increases.
True
According to evolutionary psychologists, emotion is
A. a mostly cognitive phenomenon, which is why we are able to "explain away" our emotions.
B. a psychological response to stimuli that indicates whether evolutionary goals are being helped or hindered.
c. the affective component of motivation (change in behavior) and is always in response to a stimulus.
D. B & C
E. All of the above
D B & C
According to Kettner, laughter:
i. leads to physiological relaxation and breathing changes.
ii. is most often a response to non-humorous stimuli.
iii. was probably a more recent evolutionary development than language.
a. i
b. ii
c. i and ii
d. i and iii
e. i, ii and iii
i. leads to physiological relaxation and breathing changes.
ii. is most often a response to non-humorous stimuli.

C i and ii
The most easily recognizable complex emotion (i.e., not fear) across cultures is
a. happiness.
b. disgust.
c. anger.
d. confusion.
e. frustration.
B disgust.
__________ is _________ and refers to input from the senses to the brain prior to processing, while __________ is its __________ counterpart and refers to a response to this input after it has been processed.
a. Sensation; conscious; perception; unconscious
b. Sensation; unconscious; perception; conscious
c. Perception; conscious; sensation; unconscious
d. Perception; unconscious; sensation; conscious
B Sensation; unconscious; perception; conscious
Which of these is found naturally in humans?

A. The desire to forgive

B. The desire to seek revenge

C. Both A and B

D. None of the above
C Both A and B
The "contagion effect" can be seen in...

A. Laughter

B. Yawning

C. Both A and B

D. None of the above
C Both A and B
True or False: Males are more worried about emotional promiscuity than sexual promiscuity.

A. True

B. False
False
True or False: Forgiveness is a special trait found within only a minority of human beings.

A. True

B. False
False
True or False: To make the world a more forgiving place we should change the world around us, not human nature.

A. True

B. False
True
1. In the Sex Differences in Jealousy research report, which of the studies showed large sex differences?

A) Study 1- Men and women selected which would upset them more: sexual infidelity or emotional infidelity

B) Study 2 - Physiological responses to imagined infidelity

C) Study 3 - Tested the effect of being in a committed sexual relationship on the activation of jealousy

D) all of the above
D all of the above
2. How was jealousy defined in the Sex Differences in Jealousy research report?

A) Physiological responses to a partners intentional sexual or emotional infidelity

B) An emotional state that is aroused by a perceived threat to a valued relationship or position and motivated behavior countering the threat

C) Negative physical or psychological responses to confirmation of a partners infidelity

D) none of the above
B An emotional state that is aroused by a perceived threat to a valued relationship or position and motivated behavior countering the threat
3. Based on the research presented in "The Many Faces of Leadership: An Evolutionary Psychology Approach," which face type os preferred by people during a time of peace?

A) dominant and masculine

B) dominant and feminine

C) trustworthy and feminine

D) young and attractive
C trustworthy and feminine
4. True or False: Facial femininity (vs. masculinity) was a more important leadership cue than the biological sex of the face.
True
5. What is a common reason for people partaking in risk-taking behaviors?

A) they enjoy the experience of pain

B) to impress/attract a mate

C) they are male and it is a part of the male aging experience

D) to ward off predators
B to impress/attract a mate
What are the reasons why humans laugh?
a. Health benefits
b.Social benefits
c. Produces pleasure
d.All of the above
D All of the above
What are mirror neurons used for?
a. To see yourself when looking at someone else
b. To understand how others view you
c. To mimic activities that we see others doing
d. None of the above
C To mimic activities that we see others doing
Which facial cues do people use primarily in their judgments of leadership?
a.Gender
b.Age
c,.Ethnicity
d.All of the abov
D All of the abov
Which of these is NOT a leader attribute?
a. Reliability
b. Dominance
c. Competence
d. Trustworthiness
e. Health
A Reliability
True or False: Men were more distressed about sexual infidelity than deep emotional/love infidelity than women.
True
False
True
Which of these are considered to be natural adaptations in humans?

Forgiveness

Vengeance

All of the above

None of the Above
C All of the above
2) Which of these was not a truth of the McCullough article?

The desire for revenge is a built-in feature of human nature

To make the world a more forgiving, less vengeful place, change the world instead of human nature

The capacity for forgiveness is a built-in feature of human nature

Forgiveness is no more or less a positive adaptation than revenge, and both are equally valuable in today's society
D Forgiveness is no more or less a positive adaptation than revenge, and both are equally valuable in today's society
) According to the Billingsley and Losin article, what area of the brain has been associated with pathways of reward behavior and revenge decision-making?

Hippocampus

Striatum

Amygdala

Pituitary Gland
B Striatum
War has overcome the kingdom of the Smorgdens. Battle with the neighboring state of Bladgekin is defined by new and innovative technologies and strategies unknown to traditional war. To make things worse the democratically-elected leader has died. The Smorgdens are to pick a new leader for the war from three candidates: Rufin, a young, rugged, broad-jawed man; Saldmin, a masculine older man; and Laufin, a shorter, baby-faced young man. Given what we know about leader preferences in social circumstances, which candidate is the most likely to be elected?

Rufin

Laufin

Saldmin

A Write-in
A Laufin
5) In what social situation would an older woman be the most evolutionarily-advantageous leader for a society?



War involving traditional tactics

War involving innovative tactics

Peace at the beginning of a new age of technology

Peace in the middle of well-understood conventions
D Peace in the middle of well-understood conventions
1) What are some biological effects of laughter?
a) Lower heart rate
b) Muscles of flight/flight exertion to go to limp
c) Empties the air deep in the cavities of the lungs
d) All of the above
D d) All of the above
2) According to George Bonanno, what allows people to adjust to life-altering traumas?
a) Laughter
b) Death
c) Births
d) Nothing
Aa) Laughter
3) Remembering the current USA president's name but not the 27th is an example of what memory effect?

a) Practice effect
b) Spacing effect
c) Retention effect
d) None of the above
C Retention effect
4) Which of the following are past methods to suppress female sexual desires?

a) Girls with an unusually large clitoris, or the "devil's teats", are condemn to death
b) In the Mayan culture, if a woman misbehaved, she will get seized by the h'ik'al and then carried away to his cave.
c) The WHO suggests that more than 100 million girls and women are living with the consequences of genital mutilation.
d) All of the above
D All of the above
5) Which tool was used by hominids as a measuring guide on sexual selection?
a) Shovel
b) Handaxe
c) AR-15
d) Bow and arrow
B Handaxe
. Which of the following is not a key characteristic of sexual strategies?

a. We are not always consciously aware of the sexual strategies we employ while mating.

b. When we do become aware of the strategies, it can actually impede our performance in mating.

c. There are two basic types of sexual strategies; short term and long term mating.

d. Humans always approach mating behavior without a plan.
D Humans always approach mating behavior without a plan.
Mating strategies solve a specific set of problems. Which of the following is not one of these problems?

a. Selecting a desirable mate.

b. Attracting a mate.

c. Having multiple mates at once.

d. Keeping a mate.
C Having multiple mates at once.
Which of the following is not a key difference between short and long term mating strategies?

a. Short term mating typically refers to casual sex.

b. The methods used for long term mating are aimed at procuring a mate for a long period of time.

c. The two types of mating strategies employ very different tactics.

d. Individuals typically have trouble determining which type is being sought.
C The two types of mating strategies employ very different tactics.
Which of the following factors are not typically looked at when selecting a mate?

a. Color of their mother's hair.

b. Willingness to provide abundant resources.

c. Protective aspect.

d. Devotion of time, money, and effort.
A Color of their mother's hair.
5. True or false: Humans have evolved preferences to seek mates possessing qualities such as devotion of time, money, and effort overtime.
True
1. Which of the following is the best definition of voluntary action?

A. When you are awake.

B. When your body performs different actions necessary for life, like your heart beating.

C. When you are aware of what you are doing.

D. When you fall asleep after a long and hard day.

E. Both A and C.
E Both A and C.
2. Which of the following is true of our consciousness?

A. The less complex the activity, the more likely we aren't consciously operating.

B. The less complex the activity, the less likely we aren't consciously operating.

C. The more complex the activity, the more likely we aren't consciously operating.

D. The more complex the activity, the less likely we aren't consciously operating.

E. None of the above are correct.
C The more complex the activity, the more likely we aren't consciously operating.
3. Which of the following exemplifies the definition of emotion that we discussed in class?

A. Putting on makeup before going to class vs. going all-natural.

B. Falling in love vs. getting dumped.

C. Eating chicken vs. eating beef.

D. Drinking coffee vs. drinking non-caffeinated tea.

E. All of the above are correct.
B Falling in love vs. getting dumped.
4. Which of these views was stated by Keltner according to our class discussions?

A. When someone laughs with you it creates a social bond.

B. Laughter is unproductive towards society and it is therefore detrimental.

C. Those who laugh are weak and will soon die out, extinguishing the trait of laughter altogether.

D. Both B and C.

E. Laughter is one of the greatest things in the whole world.
A When someone laughs with you it creates a social bond.
Which of the following reasons state the reason behind laughter being seen as contagious?

A. We want to impress other people, so we kiss up to them by laughing with them at their jokes.

B. Laughing helps us to get a mate, so it is best to laugh when others do to avoid being alone forever.

C. Laughing when others laugh is a way to weed out the weak people in our society to avoid them at all costs.

D. Both A and B.

E. Mirror neurons cause us to laugh when others laugh, like a virtual reality simulation of the other person's action.
E Mirror neurons cause us to laugh when others laugh, like a virtual reality simulation of the other person's action.
What could cause someone with pseudobulbar affect to laugh?
a.Nothing can make them laugh
b.Someone turning their head
c. A trivial comment in a conversation
d. B & C
D B & C
What is The McGurk Effect?
A. The phenomenon of seeing and hearing being intertwined in perception
B. The guy who was saying Ba but because we were hearing Fa, we thought he was saying Fa.
C. You can say different things, but your mouth can look the same.
D. All of the Above
D All of the Above
What is the difference in someone saying something is immoral as opposed to they dislike something?
A. Something that is immoral is universal.
B. If someone dislikes something, people think they should have a consequence.
C. If something is immoral, people think they should have a consequence.
D. A & B
E. A & C
C If something is immoral, people think they should have a consequence.
Different cultures and groups have different qualities they look for in leaders. What is the typical look of an American Politician?
a. Old man with grown out hair and a beard
b. Middle aged man, clean shaven and put together
c. Young vey feminine woman
d. None of the Above
B Middle aged man, clean shaven and put together
Masculine faces are seen as more dominant than feminine faces.
True
False
True
T/F: According to the Buss et al. (1992) study of sex differences in jealousy, males face an adaptive problem that comes at a parental cost to them.
True
Which of the following is considered an other-condemning emotion mentioned in "The Sanctimonious Animal"?

Anger
Embarrassment
Happiness
None of the above
A Anger
What does MPI stands for in "A Closer Look at the Standard Narrative of Human Sexual Evolution"?

a. Meeting Professionals International
b. Male Parental Investment
c. Master Patient Index
d. None of the above
B Male Parental Investment
T/F: Masculine faces are said to be less dominant but more trustworthy according to the Van Vugt and Grabo (2015) study.
False
A coin has just come up heads four times in a row. Is it more likely to come up heads or tails on the next flip? People who say tails are falling prey to the ________?
A) gambler's fallacy
B) recognition heuristic
C) game theory
D) typicality
A gambler's fallacy
n "Sex Differences in Jealousy" (Reading Group 3's article), which of the following were of the results?
A) Regardless of whether or not they had experienced a committed sexual relationship, women were more distressed about a partner's emotional infidelity.
B) Regardless of whether or not they had experienced a committed sexual relationship, men were more distressed about a partner's sexual infidelity.
A Regardless of whether or not they had experienced a committed sexual relationship, women were more distressed about a partner's emotional infidelity.
Which of the following is true regarding the "Sex Differences in Jealousy" article (Reading Group 3)
A) Male sexual jealousy and female commitment jealousy will be greater in cultures where males invest heavily in children
B) Male sexual jealousy will diminish as the age of the male's mate increases because her reproductive value decreases.
C) All of the above
D) None of the above
C All of the above
Which of the following is true about learning?
A) Learning occurs when behavior is modified by experience
B) Learning mechanisms are best understood as facultative adaptations
C) A & B
D) None of the above
C A & B
What does the evolutionary-contingency approach hypothesize of reading group 2's article?
A) Facial cues of dominance are particularly relevant for leadership in domains of conflict and war
B) Leadership judgments will vary as a function of the match between environmental demands and the needs of followers
C) Trustworthy faces will be particularly important for leadership judgments in settings requiring peace and diplomacy
D) All of the above
D All of the above
Rosch argued that natural categories are structured by _______, in other words, some items are more central to the category than others.

a. Typicality
b. Seasonality
c. Evolution
d. Memory
A Typicality
Which of the following effects tempers with our ability to remember things?
a. Practice effect
b. Retention effect
c. Spacing effect
d. All of the above
D All of the above
What is defined as an emotional state that is aroused by a perceived threat to a valued relationship or position and motivates the behavior aimed at countering that threat?
a. Hatred
b. Jealousy
c. Relating
d. Evolution
B Jealousy
According to Bachorowski, which was more likely to come first in term of human evolution?
a. Laughter
b. Language
c. Both Laughter and Language developed at the same time
d. It is unknown which came first
A Laughter
What is the primary purpose of perception according to Gaulin and McBurney in Chapter 4?
a. Understanding
b. Knowledge
c. Action
d. Learning
C Action
What are the two forms of Sexual Selection?
a. Competition and preference
b. Attraction and attitude
c. Competition and attraction
d. Preference and attitude
A Competition and preference
What is intersexual selection?
A. When members of the same sex compete with each other for access to members of the opposite sex
B. Members of one sex choose a mate based on preferences for particular qualities in that mate
C. Mechanisms designed to procure a mate for a short period of time
D.Mechanisms designed to procure a mate for a long period of time
B Members of one sex choose a mate based on preferences for particular qualities in that mate
Which of the following are behaviors that help procure mates
a. Competition
b. Showing off ones attractive qualities
c. Derogating rivals
d. Showing willingness to invest/commit
e. All of the above
E All of the above
Which of the following is not a personality characteristic of a poacher?
a. Low agreeableness
b. Low conscientiousness
c. High extraversion
d. Low relationship exclusivity
C High extraversion
Which of the following is a reason we may lose a mate?
A. Another suitor may poach
B. One mate may defect
C. A more desirable mate may come along
D.All of the above
D All of the above
1. Moral philosophers would most likely think which of the following is an immoral act:

A. Secretly having consensual sex with your sibling

B. Throwing rocks at a dog when no one is around

C. Using the American flag as a cleaning rag in Kazakhstan

D. They would think all of the above are immoral
B Throwing rocks at a dog when no one is around
2. What is one exception to altruistic behaviors being weeded out from a population?

A. The altruist and recipient must regularly exchange roles

B. The cost must be large

C. The benefit must be small

D. None of the above
A The altruist and recipient must regularly exchange roles
3. Learning occurs when ______.

A. You copy the behaviors of others

B. You are taught new behaviors

C. Behavior is modified by experience

D. Behavior produces different experiences
C. Behavior is modified by experience
4. Why does anthropologist Ellen Dissanayake argue that art is an important and intentional biological adaption?

A. Only the elite appreciate it, so it weeds out those who do not

B. It is important to a few cultures and is low cost

C. Since only the talented can create it, it weeds out those that are not

D. It is ubiquitous, pleasurable, and costly
D It is ubiquitous, pleasurable, and costly
5. The fact that human males have an external scrotum suggests what in human evolution?

A. Sperm competition

B. Monogamy

C. Jealousy

D. None of the abov
A Sperm competition
The three spheres of morality from the Pinker article are:

A) ethic of autonomy, ethic of respect, ethic of deference to a higher authority

B) ethic of community, ethic of autonomy, ethic of divinity

C) ethic of divinity, ethic of respect, ethic of community

D) ethic of autonomy, ethic of divinity, ethic of respect
B ethic of community, ethic of autonomy, ethic of divinity
According to Pinker, which of the following listed is not part of the three spheres of morality that pertain to moral judgement?

A. Autonomy

B. Reasoning

C. Community

D. Divinity
B Reasoning
According to the TedTalk video regarding consciousness, the main function of our brain is for:

A. Movement

B. Morality

C. Survival

D. Logical reasoning
A Movement
According to Keltner, the four basic 'laughter facts are that laughter is social, contagious, produces a remarkable physical state, and it is intertwined with our _______

A. Mood

B. Breathing

C. Vocal cords

D. Personality
B Breathing
According to Ryan & Jetha's chapter 'A Closer Look at the Standard Narrative of Human Sexual Evolution', Darwin would suggest that your mother would be compared which of the following?

A. Nurse

B. Assistant

C. Prostitute

D. Politician
C Prostitute
1. Which of the following human body characteristics are NOT the hallmarks of sexual selection through mate choice?

A. Buttocks

B. Beards

C. Breasts

D. Thighs
D Thighs
2. Which of the following is NOT one of the three spheres of ethics proposed by Richard Shweder?

A. Community

B. Autonomy

C. Dependency

D. Divinity
C Dependency
3. Darwin viewed human ornamentation and clothing as natural outcomes of sexual selection.

A. True

B. False
True