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Terms in this set (32)
Hows many cases of DNA exoneration
Trace Evidence Analogy
Memory is a form of trace evidence
we cannot collect a person memory
Each test potential influences the trace evidence
Continuously changing and degrading
What is the role of eyewitness
What is the issues with our perception?
Our expectation and experience can influence what we perceive.
How does memory work? Check all that apply
memory is reconstructed
It is easily subjected to contamination by post events information.
How do face memory work ?
What are the three stages of memory?
A)Encoding / Acquisition
Why do witness make ID errors?
System Variables (Controllable)
What do Estimator Variables consist of ?
What are the Estimator Variables?
High level of arousal/ stress
Long period of delay between event and retrieval
Presence of a weapon
Cross-race and Cross age effects
Level of attention
What are the System Variables?
Controllable by police/investigators
911 Call & Dispatcher Training
Crime scene control
What is the identification Procedures?
Mug Shots searches
Lineups (photo arrays & physical)
Often 5 to 7 items, half clothing
Hairstyle & color given
Details of facial features rarely mentioned
Salient features volunteered default
leading question often leads to guessing.
It is very difficult to describe a person features. We process faces holistically.
What is the purpose of the lineup?
It is a recognition task not a reasoning.
Lineup Theory is:
a memory task that is designed to give investigation more information than they had before the identification.
Multiple Choice Analogy is:
Simultaneously lineups are analogous to a multiple choice question.
Sequential Lineups is:
Suspect are presented at one time
Yes or No decision before continuing
Witness is unaware how many suspect are there at the line up
Nor does the Administrator know identity of the suspect
Eliminates all conscious and unconscious cues
Increases evidentiary value of eyewitness evidence
Witness Confidence / Certainty
is related to accuracy but not strongly.
What is wrong with the witness confidence ?
Many variables can increase or decrease confidence after identification decision
Post Identification feedback
Manipulation of feedback
which is the recollection of witness experience and lineup behaviors
Best lineup recommendations
Match to description filler selection
Double blind administration
Laps permitted only upon request
Obtain confidence statement immediately after ID
Suspect presented only one procedure
Audio/ Video record
Elizabeth Loftus (1984) examined 347 cases in which _____ was eyewitness testimony and found that the defendant was _____.
A)the only evidence; acquitted in most cases
B)the only evidence missing; convicted in most cases
C)the only evidence; convicted in most cases
D)the only evidence missing; acquitted in most cases
the only evidence; convicted in most cases
According to research studies on eyewitness identification that are described in the text, which of the following is FALSE?
A)People tend to overestimate the duration of a brief event.
B)It is more difficult for people to recognize the faces of others outside of their racial group.
C)High-stress conditions usually increase the rate of correct identifications.
D)Seeing the perpetrator hold a weapon impairs the witnesses' ability to recognize the assailant.
High-stress conditions usually increase the rate of correct identifications.
Which one of the following Manson criteria CONTRADICTS research findings?
A)The witness's level of attention.
B)The degree of certainty asserted by the witness.
C)The amount of time between witnessing the crime and making the identification.
D)The witness's opportunity to view the perpetrator.
The degree of certainty asserted by the witness.
To improve eyewitness accuracy, social scientists can assist the legal system in improving _____ variables.
Memory is not a perfect procedure. Errors can take place at any given point in the process and memories may not last forever. _____ is the term used to describe the biochemical representation of our experiences within the brain.
Even though the Supreme Court _____ the Manson framework, several states continue to _____ criteria established in Manson.
A)tried to amend; apply the scientifically proven
B)refused to amend; to reconsider the outdated
C)amended; refuse to apply the
D)amended; apply the outdated
refused to amend; to reconsider the outdated
One promising technique for improving the ability of an eyewitness to remember important information accurately is to relax the eyewitness and mentally reinstate the context surrounding the crime. This approach is known as a:
Cutler, Penrod, and Dexter (1990) conducted several experiments exposing mock jurors to expert testimony about the accuracy of eyewitnesses. The authors of this study found that participants who were NOT exposed to the expert testimony:
A)underestimated the accuracy of eyewitnesses.
B)tended to side with the prosecution.
C)overestimated the accuracy of eyewitnesses.
D)tended to side with the defense.
overestimated the accuracy of eyewitnesses.
Research findings indicate that there are several drawbacks to using hypnosis in forensic settings. Which of the following statements about the use of hypnosis is INCORRECT?
A)People remember less but what they do recall under hypnosis is more accurate.
B)Hypnosis can elicit false memories.
C)The effects of suggestive questioning are amplified under hypnosis.
D)After hypnosis, eyewitnesses are more confident about what they remember.
People remember less but what they do recall under hypnosis is more accurate.
Cognitive dissonance may best be described as:
A)an uncomfortable feeling when someone has conflicting thoughts.
B)a tendency to maintain a course of action.
C)a tendency to become less certain of your opinion.
D)an uncomfortable feeling when someone is positive of being right.
an uncomfortable feeling when someone has conflicting thoughts.
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