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112 terms

Interpersonal Communication

Maslow's hierarchy of needs
1- self actualization
2- self-esteem
3- belonging
4- safety and protection
5- physical needs
Buber's Continuum
I-It Communication, I-You Communication, I-Thou Communication
I-It Communication
we do not acknowledge the humanity of other people
I-You Communication
we acknowledge one another as more than objects
I-Thou Communication
highest form of human dialogue as we each affirm the other as cherished and unique
Buber's Continuum distinguishes IPC
helps us define interpersonal communication by distinguishing who is most important to us, it is what distinguishes IPC in the particular quality, or character of interaction
talking about how you were talking, affects meaning
4 perspectives of interpersonal communication
numerical perspective, situational perspective, developmental perspective, levels of information perspective
Numerical perspective
count the number of people involved, 2-3 people would count as IPC
Situational perspective
involves identifying and labeling certain situations as interpersonal situations
Developmental perspective
IPC occurs when your relationship is at a certain stage; somewhat better, but still assumes that all relationships follow predictable stages in a linear sequence
Levels of Information perspective
Miller and Steinberg, 1975; based on assumptions and making predictions about other people using 3 types of information: cultural level data, sociological level data, and psychological data
quality or character of interaction
Distinguishes interpersonal communication
Cultural level data
broad values and norms of the culture
Sociological level data
individuals use stereotypical information based on group memberships
Psychological data
involves making prediction about someone else's behavior based on personal, unique characteristics
First 5 principles of IPC
1. occurs between people
2. cannot not communicate in relationships
3. communication is irreversible
4. involves ethical choices, people are actors not reactors
5. meaning are constructed, humans are inherently symbol-using creatures; symbols have no true meaning, we have to interpret symbols
Last 5 principles of IPC
6. includes both content and relationship dimensions, metacommunication
7. develops and sustains relationships
8. not a panacea (fix all concerns)
9. governed by rules- both implicit and explicit
10. competence can be learned and improved
IPC develops and sustains relationships
involves being in a relationship and viewing relationships as ongoing, ever-changing
a human construction, a symbolic way we represent phenomena or "make sense" of the world
Theory helps us understand
what something is, how it works, what it produces or causes to happen, and what can change how it operates
4 goals of theory
1. description
2. explanation
3. understanding, prediction, and control
4. reform
considered the foundation of a theory, process of using symbols to represent phenomena- must identify key features and describe variations of concepts of some types of communication
involves an effort to clarify "how" and "why" something works, how parts of interact and work together
insight into a particular situation, process, or phenomenon
involves projecting what will happen to something under specific conditions
the use of explanations and predictions to govern what a phenomenon actually does
involves the active pursuit of social change, theories that reveal inequities of social injustices and promote pubic and personal change
5 criteria to evaluate theory
1. scope
2. testability
3. parsimony
4. utility
5. heurism
how much does a theory describe and explain?
testability (verification)
this asks whether they are accurate or not, is it testable?
is it appropriately simple?
is it useful? does the theory have value?
does it generate new thought or insight?
4 attachment styles
secure, anxious/resistant, dismissive, and fearful
attachment theory
include patterns of parenting that teach us who we are and others are and how to approach relationships
attachment styles in earliest form
primary caregiver
attachment initial bonds
help form our expectations for interpersonal communication and personal relationships later in life
2 peer influences on the development of "self"
reflected appraisal and social comparisons
reflected appraisals
the process whereby our self-concept is influenced by how we think other people see us
looking glass self
reflected appraisal, view yourself how you think others view you
social comparisons
comparing ourselves with others to form judgment of our own talents, abilities, and so forth
reference group
social comparisons, the people we use to evaluate our characteristics
direct definitions
communications that explicitly tells us who we are by labeling us and our behaviors
identity scripts
include rules for labeling and identity, formed by age 5
development of self-concept
direct definitions, identity scripts, attachment styles, and reflected appraisals
particular others
specific people who are significant to us and who have a profound influence on how we see ourselves
generalized others
collections of rules, roles, and attitudes of an overall society; includes attitudes toward race, gender, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic class
Altman and Taylor's Social Penetration Model
Who created the model of self-disclosure involves both breadth and depth of information
communication quality
1. must deliberately share information about ourselves
2. believe that the information is true
characteristics of self-disclosure
1. typically occurs in small increments
2. moves from less personal to more personal, it varies in breadth and depth
3. reciprocal- the dyadic effect
4. involves risk and trust
5. can enhance intimacy, but not always
Impression Formation Theory
form impressions of others through perceptions of physical qualities and behaviors, information people disclose about themselves, and through third parties
Implicit Personality Theory
pattern of associated qualities that we attribute to people, allows us to understand them, consist of stereotypes
organized knowledge structures people use to make sense of their experiences
guides to action based on our experiences and observations of interactions
schemas that define the clearest or most representative example of some category
personal construct
"mental yardsticks" we use to measure people and situations along bipolar dimensions of judgment
predictive generalizations about people and situations
self-serving bias
refers to our tendency to attribute our successes to stable, internal causes while attributing our failure to unstable, external causes
fundamental attribution error
overestimate internal causes of others' undesirable behaviors and underestimate external causes; underestimate internal causes of our own misdeeds and overestimate external causes
constitutive rules
define what communications means by specifying how to count, or interpret certain kinds of communication
regulative rules
interaction by specifying when, how, where, and with whom to talk about certain things
shapes meaning, defines beginnings and endings or interaction episodes
different types of hurtful messages
accusation, evaluation, directive, advice, express desire, inform, questions, jokes, threats, and lies
a charge of fault or offense
a description of value or worth
an order, set of directions, or commands
a suggestion for a course of action
express desire
a statement of preference
a disclosure of information
most common hurtful messages
evaluations and accusations
least common hurtful messages
threats and lies
hurtful message topics
romantic relations, nonromantic relations, sexual behavior, physical appearance, abilities/intelligence, personality traits, self-worth, time, ethnicity/religion
Most common hurtful message topics
romantic relations and personality traits
Least common hurtful message topics
Action (Linear) models
Shannon & Weaver's (1949) Electronic Transmitter model
Interactive models
Schramm's (1955) Fields of Experience Model
Transactional models
Wheeless' "Messy" model
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
contains 2 principles- linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity
Linguistic determinism
language determines how we think
Linguistic relativity
suggests that people who speak different languages will see the world differently
language is bound by
context and culture
rules of language
phonological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic rules
locus, stability, controllability
refers to where the cause of a behavior is "located" whether within ourselves or outside ourselves; attributions what a person does to internal causes or external causes
explains actions as a result of stable factors or unstable, temporary circumstances
attributes behavior to factors people can control or to those they cannot
Necessary evil
enables us to simplify a complex communication environment
no intrinsic meaning in phenomena- instead, we _________ meaning by interpreting what we have observed
Symbolic Nature of Language
Language is arbitrary, ambiguous, abstract
language is arbitrary
the connections between most words and the objects or concepts they symbolize is arbitrary, and meaning of words change over time
language is ambiguous
meanings vary as a result of people's experiences; consider the Semantic Triangle and loaded language
language is abstract
it varies in clarity and is bound by context and culture
a vague, mild expression that symbolizes something more blunt or harsh
researchers believe the most important aspect of humor is a violation of expectations
Slang (and jargon)
informal and unconventional words that are often understood only by others in a particular group, can serve an important social function- can "mark" someone as belonging to a particular group
both are forms of defamation, or language that harms a person's reputation or character
can sometimes serve as a "social lubricant" by maintain an informal atmosphere
Rules of language
phonological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic rules guide our language use
Principles of verbal communication
1- language is bound by context and culture
2- language use is rule-guided
3- punctuation shapes meaning
word to classify IPC
Interpersonal Communication
the lifeblood of meaningful relationships in personal, social, and professional contexts
Phonological rules
deal with the correct pronunciation of a word, and they vary from language to language
Syntactic rules
govern the ordering of words with phrases
Semantic rules
have to do with the meanings of individual words
Pragmatic rules
deal with the implications or interpretations of statements
The Semantic Triangle
symbol, referent, and reference
Language changes
cultural values and perspectives by naming things that alter understanding
explicit rule
a rule about behavior that has been clearly articulated
implicit rule
a rule about behavior that has not been clearly articulated but is nonetheless understood
cognitive mieser
"scroog" when we stereotype people, we place them into inflexible, all-encompassing categories
Communication theory
a symbolic creation designed to explain why messages or message behaviors occur in the patterns we observe