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AP Environmental Science Ch 9 Water Resources
Terms in this set (47)
What percentage of the earth is covered in water?
What percentage of earth's water is fresh water?
Less than 3%
In what form is most of earth's freshwater found?
Ice and glaciers
Where is most of earth's liquid freshwater found?
Water that is stored within permeable layers of porous rock, water can easily flow in and out
Aquifers surrounded by impermeable rock or clay, preventing water flow
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates the rock or soil
The process by which water from precipitation percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer.
An opening in a confined aquifer at the land's surface, the only way a confined aquifer can be recharged
An area where water from aquifers naturally percolates up to the surface
A hole dug in the ground that draws water from an aquifer
A hole drilled into a confined aquifer, often such aquifers are under high pressure causing water to naturally rise to the surface
Why is large scale use of water from a confined aquifer not sustainable?
Confined aquifers recharge extremely slowly, sometimes over 10,000 or 20,000 years. Withdrawn water will not be replaced, causing the aquifer to go dry.
Cone of Depression
Occurs when more water is withdrawn from an aquifer than enters it, the water table will drop near the area around a well
When the pressure in a coastal aquifer is reduced through rapid withdrawal of water causing ocean saltwater to infiltrate the aquifer
Fresh water that exists above grounds including streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and wetlands
What are the world's 3 largest rivers?
The Amazon in South America, the Congo in Africa, and the Yangtze in China
The land adjacent to a river where excess river water spreads onto land during periods of snowmelt or heavy rain, causing nutrient-rich land
How are different lakes formed?
Tectonic activity can cause areas of land to rise up, isolating a region of the ocean. It can also cause rifts in the landscape that eventually fill with water. The movement of glaciers can scrape large depressions in the land that subsequently fill with water.
Lakes with low productivity due to low amounts of nutrients.
Moderately productive lakes
Highly productive lakes due to high amounts of nutrients
What role do wetlands play in the distribution and regulation of water?
Wetlands can absorb and store water during times of heavy rainfall and release it slowly, preventing floods.
How does drought indirectly affect soil productivity?
The cycling of many nutrients, like nitrogen an phosphorous, depends on movement of water, so droughts can decrease soil fertility. Prolonged droughts can dry out the soil so much that the topsoil blows away in the wind causing dust storms.
Man-made surfaces like pavement and buildings that do not allow water penetration. These often cause or worsen the effects of flooding and prevent groundwater recharge.
An enlarged bank built up on each side of a river to prevent flooding
Enlarged banks built to prevent the ocean from flooding land below sea level
A barrier that runs across a river or stream to control the flow of water
The large body of water stored by a dam
A set of stairs with water flowing down them to allow fish to migrate past dams.
What percentage of dams in the US generate hydroelectric power?
Canals or ditches used to carry water from one location to another
The process of removing salt from saltwater
A type of desalination where water is evaporated, leaving salt particles behind, and then re-condensed into fresh liquid water. This process uses a great deal of energy.
A type of desalination in which water is forced through a semipermeable membrane through which water can pass but salt cannot, resulting in fresh water.
What environmental problems are associated with desalination?
The processes used to desalinate water use a large amount of energy and involve the burning of fossil fuels. The brine (extremely salty water) that is left over cannot be safely disposed of.
What percentage of the world's water is used for agriculture, industry, and household needs?
Household needs: 10%
How much water is needed to produce a metric ton of grain?
1 million liters of water/metric ton of grain
Trenches dug along a row of crops that are then filled with water
Flooding an entire field with water and letting it soak in evenly.
Water is pumped from a well to a series of spray nozzles like giant lawn sprinklers
Slowly dripping hose that is either lying on the ground or buried beneath the soil
Over 95% efficient
The cultivation of crop plants under greenhouse conditions with their roots immersed in nutrient-rich water
What industrial activities consume large amounts of water?
Thermoelectric power plants use heat to convert water to steam which then turns turbines. Other industries use water to refine metal and paper.
What is the order from greatest to least of household functions that consume the most water?
Toilet flushing > Bathing > Laundry > Cooking and Drinking
What are some outdoor uses of household water?
Watering lawns, washing cars, and filling swimming pools
What percentage of the earth's population lacks access to clean drinking water?
Nearly 15% (1 billion people)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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