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Study of fungi

Anal pore

Opening near the back end


Mouth-like opening (ingestion)

Contractile vacuole

Pumps access water out of cell

Characteristics shared by all Protozoa

Unicellular, lack cell wall & eukaryotics

Protozoa are motile

Cilia, flagella & pseudopia

Sexual spore

Formed by fusion of nuclei of opposite mating, strains of same species of mold

Food Vacuole


Common characteristics of 3 types of fungi

Eukaryotic, have cell wall, composed of polysacharide called chitin, chemoheterotrophs

Types of fungi (spores)

Sponrangiospores (inside the sac)
Chlaymdospores (inside the hyphae)
Conidiospores (spores nott enclosed in a sac)


First animal cell like organisms


Obtain nutrients from dead organic matter i.e. mushrooms, pencillium, bread mold

Characteristic of mold

Multicellular, filamentous, aerobic (w/oxygen), reproduced by spore, asexual/sexual

Characteristic of yeast

Unicellular, oval, anaerobic (w/without oxygen), reproduce by budding

What are Hyphae's that molds are composed of

Septate hyphae - divided into cells by crosswall
Aseptate hyphae - no septum, aka coenocytic (multi-nucleated)

Dimorphic fungi

Shows two forms of growth mold & yeast

Ex. Dimorphic pathogenic fungi

Candida albicans, coccideodesimmitis (valley fever), hisplasma capsulation (lung infection)


Mass of hyphae (growth is on petri dish)

What two forms of growth does Dimorphic fungi show

Mold (tube) & yeast (oval)

What does mold & yeast need to grow

Tempature, oxygen & many pathogenic fungi

What are molds composed of

Hyphae - mold filaments

Growth requirement of fungi over bacteria

Acidic pH, tolerates salt/sugar concentrations, high osmotic pressure, requires less nitogent for growth

Classification of fungi into two divisions is based on

Type of asexual spores they produce & hyphae


Spore formed inside the hyphae

Fungi are parasitic

Obtain nutrients from other living organisms, plants, animals & humans


Spore formed inside the sac


Spores formed not enclosed


Fungal disease

Asexual spores

Formed by hyphae of one organism through mitosis and cell division

Three types of fungi

Yeast, mold & mushrooms


Resting place for Protozoa (parasitic intestinal protozoa) purpose protection

Freeliving Protozoa


Parasitic Protozoa

Absorb nutrients from other living matter


Motile feeding stage (vegative)

Dinoflagellates & Euglenoids are

Photoautotrophs (perform photosynethsis)

Protozoa are chemoheterotrophs

Ingest and absorb nutrients

Two nucleis found in some Protozoa

Micronucleus & macronucleus

Protozoa structure Pellicle

Lack cell wall, envelope surrounds cell membrane


Sexual reproduction fusion with similiar gametes with untion of their nuclei

Disease of GI Protozoa

Giardiasis - Giardia, Amoebiasis - Entamoeby histolytic & cryptosporidiasis - sytosporidium

Disease of the blood Protozoa

Malaria - (caused by plasmodium)

PSP - Paratytic shellfish poisoning & Neurotoxin - secreted by dinoflagellate protozoa

Food intoxication of Protozoa

Naegleria fowlerii & Americal sleeping sickness - Chaga's

Diseases with nervous system Protozoa


Worm like parasites, egg & larve, infectous to humans & animals i.e. flukes, tapeworm and roundworm

Helminths characteristics

Multicellular animals, freeliving & parasites, circulatory digestive, nervous, multiple host & produce by egg, larve & adult worms

Ex: of Helminths

Flatworms, tapeworm, flukes, roundworm, hookworm & pinworm

Arthropod Vector

Ticks, mites, fleas, lice, true flies & mosquitoes

Characteristics of arthropods

Jointed legs, segmented body covered in exskeleton, & transmission of diseases

Biological Vectors

Infected with pathogen, reproduces inside arthropod & transmitted to another host through bite with arthropod

Mechanical Vector

Carry pathogen on their external body parts, wings & leggs & transmit to another host

Vector borne diseases

Transmitted to humans or other animals by insect or arthropod

Ex: of Vector borne diseases

Mosiquito (B) - malaria & West niles virus, ticks - lyme disease & house fly - transmitts, tyhoid, & jauntis

Protozoa Reproduction

Asexual reproduction - binary fission (separation of body into two) & schizogony (multiple fission)

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