53 terms

Chpt 12

Study of fungi
Anal pore
Opening near the back end
Mouth-like opening (ingestion)
Contractile vacuole
Pumps access water out of cell
Characteristics shared by all Protozoa
Unicellular, lack cell wall & eukaryotics
Protozoa are motile
Cilia, flagella & pseudopia
Sexual spore
Formed by fusion of nuclei of opposite mating, strains of same species of mold
Food Vacuole
Common characteristics of 3 types of fungi
Eukaryotic, have cell wall, composed of polysacharide called chitin, chemoheterotrophs
Types of fungi (spores)
Sponrangiospores (inside the sac)
Chlaymdospores (inside the hyphae)
Conidiospores (spores nott enclosed in a sac)
First animal cell like organisms
Obtain nutrients from dead organic matter i.e. mushrooms, pencillium, bread mold
Characteristic of mold
Multicellular, filamentous, aerobic (w/oxygen), reproduced by spore, asexual/sexual
Characteristic of yeast
Unicellular, oval, anaerobic (w/without oxygen), reproduce by budding
What are Hyphae's that molds are composed of
Septate hyphae - divided into cells by crosswall
Aseptate hyphae - no septum, aka coenocytic (multi-nucleated)
Dimorphic fungi
Shows two forms of growth mold & yeast
Ex. Dimorphic pathogenic fungi
Candida albicans, coccideodesimmitis (valley fever), hisplasma capsulation (lung infection)
Mass of hyphae (growth is on petri dish)
What two forms of growth does Dimorphic fungi show
Mold (tube) & yeast (oval)
What does mold & yeast need to grow
Tempature, oxygen & many pathogenic fungi
What are molds composed of
Hyphae - mold filaments
Growth requirement of fungi over bacteria
Acidic pH, tolerates salt/sugar concentrations, high osmotic pressure, requires less nitogent for growth
Classification of fungi into two divisions is based on
Type of asexual spores they produce & hyphae
Spore formed inside the hyphae
Fungi are parasitic
Obtain nutrients from other living organisms, plants, animals & humans
Spore formed inside the sac
Spores formed not enclosed
Fungal disease
Asexual spores
Formed by hyphae of one organism through mitosis and cell division
Three types of fungi
Yeast, mold & mushrooms
Resting place for Protozoa (parasitic intestinal protozoa) purpose protection
Freeliving Protozoa
Parasitic Protozoa
Absorb nutrients from other living matter
Motile feeding stage (vegative)
Dinoflagellates & Euglenoids are
Photoautotrophs (perform photosynethsis)
Protozoa are chemoheterotrophs
Ingest and absorb nutrients
Two nucleis found in some Protozoa
Micronucleus & macronucleus
Protozoa structure Pellicle
Lack cell wall, envelope surrounds cell membrane
Sexual reproduction fusion with similiar gametes with untion of their nuclei
Disease of GI Protozoa
Giardiasis - Giardia, Amoebiasis - Entamoeby histolytic & cryptosporidiasis - sytosporidium
Disease of the blood Protozoa
Malaria - (caused by plasmodium)
PSP - Paratytic shellfish poisoning & Neurotoxin - secreted by dinoflagellate protozoa
Food intoxication of Protozoa
Naegleria fowlerii & Americal sleeping sickness - Chaga's
Diseases with nervous system Protozoa
Worm like parasites, egg & larve, infectous to humans & animals i.e. flukes, tapeworm and roundworm
Helminths characteristics
Multicellular animals, freeliving & parasites, circulatory digestive, nervous, multiple host & produce by egg, larve & adult worms
Ex: of Helminths
Flatworms, tapeworm, flukes, roundworm, hookworm & pinworm
Arthropod Vector
Ticks, mites, fleas, lice, true flies & mosquitoes
Characteristics of arthropods
Jointed legs, segmented body covered in exskeleton, & transmission of diseases
Biological Vectors
Infected with pathogen, reproduces inside arthropod & transmitted to another host through bite with arthropod
Mechanical Vector
Carry pathogen on their external body parts, wings & leggs & transmit to another host
Vector borne diseases
Transmitted to humans or other animals by insect or arthropod
Ex: of Vector borne diseases
Mosiquito (B) - malaria & West niles virus, ticks - lyme disease & house fly - transmitts, tyhoid, & jauntis
Protozoa Reproduction
Asexual reproduction - binary fission (separation of body into two) & schizogony (multiple fission)