41 terms

APES Chapter 12 &13

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fossil fuel
a fuel from biological material that became fossilized millions of years ago (50 million-350 million)
nuclear fuel
fuel derived from radioactive materials that give off energy
nonrenewable energy resource
an energy source with a finite supply, primarily the fossil and nuclear fuels
commercial energy source
an energy source that is bought and sold
subsistence energy source
an energy source gathered by individuals for their own immediate needs
EROEI
Energy Return On Energy Investment
energy carrier
something that can move and deliver energy in a convenient, usable form to end users (batteries)
turbine
a device with blades that can be turned by water, wind, steam, or another fluid to generate electricity
electrical grid
a network of interconnected transmission lines that joins power plants together and links them with end users of electricity
generator
an apparatus for producing electricity
condenser
an apparatus or container for condensing water vapor back into water
pulverizer
breaks coal into smog to make combustion easier
a coal-fired electricity generation plant
converts water into steam, which turns a turbine
combined cycle
a power plant that uses both exhaust gases and steam turbines to generate electricity
capacity
in reference to an electricity-generating plant, the maximum electrical output
capacity factor
the fraction of time a power plant operates in a year
cogeneration (combined heat and power)
the use of fuel to generate electricity and produce heat; 90% efficiency
anthracite
the cleanest form of coal with the greatest energy to mass ratio
natural gas
the cleanest fossil fuel
oil sands
slow-flowing, viscous deposits of bitumen mixed with sand, water, and clay
bitumen
a degraded petroleum that forms when petroleum migrates to the surface of Earth and is modified by bacteria
CTL (coal and liquid)
the process of converting solid coal into liquid fuel
the Hubbert Curve
predicted when we would reach peak oil (1/2 our supply) and there would be a decrease in supply
nuclear fusion
a reaction that occurs when lighter nuclei are forced together to produce heavier nuclei
nuclear fission
a nuclear reaction in which a neutron strikes a relatively large atomic nucleus, which then splits into two or more parts, releasing additional neutrons and energy in the form of heat
control rod
a cylindrical device inserted between the fuel rods in a nuclear reactor to absorb excess neutrons and slow or stop the fission reaction (cadmium, boron, or other elements capable of absorbing neutrons)
fuel rod
a cylindrical tube that encloses nuclear fuel within a nuclear reactor
radioactive waste
nuclear fuel that can no longer produce enough heat to be useful in a power plant but continues to emit radioactivity
becquerel
a unit that measures the rate at which a sample of radioactive material decays
curie
a unit of measure for radiation
Chernobyl
due to human and technical error
Fukushima
natural; considered worst to ever hit Japan
energy conservation
finding and implementing ways to use less energy
tiered rate system
a billing system used by some electric companies in which customers pay higher rates as they increase in tier
peak demand
the greatest quantity of energy used at one time
passive solar design
construction designed to take advantage of solar radiation without active technology
active solar design
construction designed to take advantage of solar radiation with active technology
thermal mass
a property of a building material that allows it to retain heat or cold.
potentially renewable
an energy source that can be regenerated indefinitely as long as it is not overharvested
nondepletable
an energy source that cannot be used up
renewable
an energy source that is either potentially renewable or non depletable