Chp 7 S3: Han Emperors in China
Terms in this set (38)
a strong empire also arose in china. The chinese had been reunited briefly under the Qin Empire but it fell apart in a period of civil war. In 202 BC, Liu Bang named himself the first emperor of the Han Dynasty. The Han would rule parts of china for the next 400 years. They set many patterns for Chinese culture for centuries to come. Liu Bang created a centralized gov. Local officials reported to the emperor. The rule of the previous emperor had been very harsh. Liu Bang took a different approach. He lowered taxes. He gave lighter penalties for crimes. Life became easier for the Chinese people. from 141-87 BC, the emperor Wudi ruled Han China. He made his empire almost the size of modern china. he defeated nomads in the north. He moved troops and settlers to the west. He sent soldiers to the north, into modern Korea, and to the south in modern Vietnam.
what changes did Han leaders make
Liu Bang created a centralized government which led to lowered taxes, and lighter penalties for crime.
What changes did Liu Bang make?
chinese society under the han dynasty was very structured. The emperor was at the top. He had a large number of officials who reached down to the smallest village. They filled civil service jobs. those who wanted these jobs had to pass an exam. The exam tested them on their knowledge of the writings of the chinese philosopher, Confucius. to support a large gov., the emperor collected taxes, farmers payed for part of the crops they gathered, merchants payed taxes on the goods they traded, peasants also had to work 1 month a year on gov proj. such as dams and roads. Until han rule, the chinese created many new inventions. One was paper. Paper made books more available and increased learning. the chinese also improved farming by inventing a new two bladed plow. this change was imp. because a number of chinese people had grown greatly. As han emperors told their people, farming was the most imp work. at the same time, several industries became imp. the gov. had a monopoly on or took complete control of the mining of salt and making of iron, coins and alcohol. It also made silk, which was in great demand in other lands.
What advances took place
Changes in farming was so important because the number of Chinese people grew greatly which caused a demand or production of more food in a faster process to be available for the people.
Why were changes in farming so imp?
China now included many different peoples. the han rulers encouraged assimilation, making sure that these people learn chinese ways. they urged the chinese to marry them. one group that did not do well in china was women. according to confucius, women were limited to meeting the needs of their husband and children. some upper class women however, were able to become involved in other areas of life. the han empire began to have problems. rich became richer, while the poor were forced to pay heavy taxes. Members of the court were caught up in plots to gain power. Eventually, the peasants rebelled against their high taxes and poor lives. A gov. official named Wang Mang took the throne. He tried to help the poor by taking land from large landholders, but a terrible flood struck china and the peasants rebelled again. the Han Dynasty was restored when a member of the han family was put on the throne. this was called the later han dynasty. for the next few decades, china enjoyed peace and wealth but the same problems arose, the gap between rich and poor was too great By AD 220, the Han dynasty had fallen for good.
why did problems develop
they declined because the government officials were plotting ideas to take control of the Dynasty and the rich became richer while the poor had to heavily pay taxes which led to a huge gap between the rich and the poor therefore leading to the decline.
What caused the fall of the Han Dynasty
one of the most imp. dynasties is called "Han" cause the rulers come from the province Han
Liu Bang founds the Han Dynasty
Who found the Han Dynasty
was an aristocratic general
who was willing to allow the warlords to keep their territories if they would
acknowledge him as their feudal lord.
was one of
Xiang Yu's generals.
Liu Bang turned against Xiang Yu. The two fought their final battle
in 202 B.C. Liu Bang won and declared himself the first emperor of the Han
relationship between Xiang Yu and Liu Bang
his mother, Empress Lü. Although Lü had not been
Liu Bang's only wife, she had powerful friends at court who helped her seize
power. The empress outlived her son and retained control of the throne by naming
first one infant and then another as emperor. Because the infants were too young
to rule, she remained in control
When Liu Bang died in 195 B.C., his son became emperor, but in
name only. The real ruler was
came back into
power. They rid the palace of the old empress's relatives by executing them.
When Empress Lü died in 180 B.C., people who
remained loyal to Liu Bang's family, rather than to Lü's family, came
When Liu Bang's great-grandson took the throne, he continued
Liu Bang's centralizing policies. Who is he?
reigned from 141 to
87 B.C., held the throne longer than any other Han emperor. He is called the
"Martial Emperor" because he adopted the policy of expanding the Chinese empire
2 or 3 times the size of the Middle kingdom
how large is the Han Dynasty
Bribes the Xiongnu, didn't work so he sent about 100,000 people to fight them. To help defeat the Xiongnu, Wudi
also made allies of their enemies
Wudi's biggest achievement
The Chinese emperor relied on a complex
bureaucracy to help him rule.
farmers payed for part of the crops they gathered, merchants payed taxes on the goods they traded, peasants also had to work 1 month a year on gov proj. such as dams and roads. Compulsive military services
How did people pay taxes
production of food was considered vital to
the existence of the empire.
soldiers just guarded the empire's frontiers.
why were soldiers in the near the bottom of Chinese society
Wudi's government employed more than
________ people. The bureaucracy included __different ranks of civil service jobs,
which were government jobs that civilians obtained by taking __________. At
times, Chinese emperors rewarded loyal followers with __________.
Wudi starts to promote people who were _____
you cannot work in the gov. if u didnt learn about
what were the Hans significant contributions
Han Dynasty. No war, people can feed themselves, population growth
during what dynasty does china enter an era of peace and prosperity and why
Artisans and merchants dont work the land like peasants do. when population grows peasants work more lands and provide the bulk of the food even though farming doesn't make as much money than artisans and merchants do
why were peasants a higher class than the artisans
a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods
the mining of salt, forging of iron, minting of coins, and brewing of alcohol
the gov established monopolies on
If u have counterfeit and coins are made that are not real they are not counted in currency
the minting of coins was imp. why?
an item of trade. Is made from silkworms. In the Han Dynasty, silk is a Chinese state secret
the economy booms
as a result of all these monopolies in china what happens
They encourage assimilation. They offered farmers to settle in newly colonized areas. Encouraged to intermarry with local peoples, set up schools to train people in the Confucian philosophy, and then appointed local scholars to gov. posts
How does the gov engage in unifying its culture
Sima Qian-known as Grand Historian
3-4 major historians
-China is a Patriach society
-different to men and brothers
-encouraged to stay in the house
-upperclass however have some free range power than women in the lower class
-clergy nuns were able to educate themselves with religion/travel
Women in society
the land divided when people died
land gets smaller and smaller
unable to feed families because its small
Farmers borrow money from landowners who charged very high interest rates as well as pay taxes.
the farmers go in debt, landowners take their land eventually expanding land for themselves, like the later Zhou dynasty
poverty, then crimes
what starts to happen to the Han
Wang Mang takes over the Han
acts as a regent for the infant who had been crowned emperor. Took the imperial title for himself and overthrew the Han to restore order thus ending the former Han, the first half of the Han Dynasty
-He takes land from the nobles and gives to the peasants
-Mints new money (why?!? He hopes to give money to people and gov cause lack of taxes) (PROBLEM: it disrupted economy, because it allowed people to increase their spending, which encouraged merchants to raise prices, peasants become poor again)
Massive flood then happens, a lot of people die, granaries dont hold enough food thus starving people
Rebels kill Wang Mang beginning the 2nd period of Han rule called the "late han"
How does Wang Mang try to restore order
result of him attempting to