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Musculoskeletal Disorders

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (64)

Muscle compartments in the upper and lower extremities are enclosed by (walled off) tough inelastic fascial tissue that does not expand if the muscle swells. Edema that occurs in response to the fracture can lead to an increase in compartment pressure that reduces capillary blood perfusion. Leads to ischemia. Compromises circulation, some compartments can become more impacted than others, causing damage to the vessels, muscles, and nerves in that compartment. Because that fascia is not going to give as the swelling increases. If it goes untreated, the patient can lose nerve and muscle function, the muscle can become necrotic due to lack of circulation. Infection, myoglobinuria and renal failure may follow, amputation may become necessary. The primary findings is to assess for pain out of proportion of the injury. Keep the extremity at heart level. Cold applications should be avoided. Adequate hydration is important.
If you lose pulses to the limb, call MD ASAP
• Pain with passive dorsiflexion is a hallmark finding, not active dorsiflexion is a sign
→ Screams in pain if you move that pain dorsally a little bit, because that muscle is dying as a result
• Look for any pallor or coolness of the client's extremity
• Changes in ability to move digits
• Paresthesias, numbness, tingling
• Palpate that muscle and see if the muscle is tense
→ Very tense muscle is another indication of compartment syndrome
• First 72 hours are key, you have 6 hours once you start seeing signs or symptoms
→ To flay that leg open, irrigate that muscle and get oxygen to it, otherwise it is going to die and you are going to have to take it out
→ Very debilitating to a patient
→ Lots of lawsuits