Civics Quarterly #1
Terms in this set (93)
The study of citizenship, government, and what it means to be a citizen.
A legally recognized member of a country
What language does the word "civics" come from?
Greece, around 590 B.C.
When and where did the concept of the citizen originate?
People who lived in the city of Rome and those born in the territories it had conquered.
What two groups did the Romans distinguish using the term "citizen"?
What are organizations, institutions, and individuals who exercise political authority over a group of people?
Being an active member of society by fulfilling your duties and responsibilities.
What does being an effective American citizen mean?
Equality, liberty, & justice.
What are the three basic values of the United States?
The U.S. Constitution and our laws.
What are our rights and values protected by?
________ means that each citizen has the same right to enjoy the many benefits granted to all citizens, regardless of race, sex, religion, place of birth, etc.
What is the freedom to make our own choices without being controlled and limited by the government?
If they break the law or violate another citizen's rights.
What is the only reason by which someone's right would be taken away?
Our responsibility in protecting our rights and freedoms.
What is our "civic duty"?
the people participate.
We cannot have government "by the people" unless...
Voting in elections and expressing your opinion.
What are two of the most important responsibilities you have as a citizen?
He could be voted out in the next election
What would happen if an office holder never responded to voters in his district or didn't take voters' needs into consideration?
So that we know how to be good citizens.
Why is it important to study civics?
Because some immigrants still practice their traditions after coming to the U.S.
Why is a melting pot not a good representation of the diversity in the U.S.?
What are people who came here from other countries called?
12,000 - 40,000 years ago, from Asia.
When did the first people settle in North America and where were they from?
Christopher Columbus and his crew, in 1492
Who were the first Europeans to build permanent European settlements in the Americas?
Because it had vast natural resources and plenty of room.
Why did Europeans begin coming to the Americas?
Africans were brought to the Americas as slaves.
What was the difference between the first European immigrants and the first African immigrants?
Because the immigrants were taking their factory jobs, and they had many disagreements over culture and religion.
Why were Americans angry about the flood of immigrants?
It prevented Chinese immigration to the U.S.
What did the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 do?
What is a specific number of immigrants from certain countries or regions who are allowed to enter the country each year?
What are permanent residents of the United States who are still citizens of another country?
To be a citizen by birth, because you were born in the US or in any of its territories.
What does it mean to be native-born?
What percentage of US citizens is native born?
What is the legal process by which an alien may become a citizen called?
They cannot become president or VP.
What is the only exception to a naturalized citizen's rights?
Legal aliens received permission to enter the US and have a visa, and illegal aliens entered without permission.
What is the difference between legal and illegal aliens?
Who are people who come to the US to escape dangers in their home countries?
What is an official, periodic counting of a population?
every 10 years
How often does the US conduct a census?
To find out how many people live in each state, so we can determine how many representatives each state will send to Congress.
What is the main reason for the census, and why is it the most important?
What is the study of the characteristics of human populations?
By natural increase, immigration, and by adding territory.
In what three ways does a country grow?
If the birthrate is higher than the death rate.
How would a country increase naturally?
Households have changed in size, women's roles have changed, and the population has gotten older and more diverse.
What are 4 ways in which the US population has changed?
Because some people have decided to have fewer children, or not to have children at all. Also, people have been living longer, more independently, and the number of divorces has gone up.
Why have households gotten smaller?
What is a movement of large numbers of people from region to region?
For factory jobs
Why did farm workers and their families migrate to cities?
Urban areas are cities, suburban areas are the areas surrounding the cities, and rural areas are on the countryside.
What is the difference between urban, suburban, and rural areas?
Regions made up of cities and their suburbs.
What are metropolitan areas?
Because new inventions like cars and highways allowed to live farther from their jobs.
Why were city workers able to move to the suburbs?
The warmer southern states, like Florida, North Carolina, and all the way to southern California.
What is the Sunbelt?
What is "customary, time-honored"?
democratic and nondemocratic
What two categories do governments fall into?
Who is a person, such as a king or queen, who reigns over a kingdom or an empire, and what kind of government do they lead?
What are monarchs who rule by force and hold all the power called?
Who is a person who rules with complete and absolute power?
What is a type of dictatorship in which all power is concentrated in a small group of people?
Dictatorships are ___________, which means that the rulers answer only to themselves, not to the people they rule.
What is it called when a dictator tries to control every aspect of the citizens' lives?
What is a government controlled by one or more religious leaders who claim to rule on behalf of God or the gods worshipped in their country?
In what government do the people of a nation either rule directly or elect officials who act on their behalf?
Greek: "rule of the people"
Where does the term "democracy" come from, and what does it mean?
Direct democracy and representative democracy
What are the two types of democracies?
What type of representative democracy is the US?
To help people cooperate, provide laws, provide services, and in the US, to guarantee our freedom.
What are the 4 basic purposes of the government?
What is a written plan of government?
July 4th, 1776, by the Continental Congress
When was the Declaration of Independence approved, and by who?
Who wrote most of the Declaration of Independence?
Why the US was separating from Great Britain, and that the purpose of their new government was to protect human rights.
What two things are explained in the Declaration?
What are the basic rights to which all people are entitled called?
Because they didn't want to be taxed without their consent.
What is one reason why colonists decided to separate from Great Britain?
The right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
What are the 3 most well-known ideals stated in the Declaration?
The US' first plan of government.
What were the Articles of Confederation?
A loose association, rather than a firm union, of states.
What is a confederation?
The writers of the Articles wanted to preserve the states' _________, or absolute power.
States couldn't agree on anything, and since the national government had limited power, they couldn't stop the arguments or prevent future ones. The US appeared weak and divided. No laws could be passed because of the 9/13 law.
What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
What was the second, and current, plan of government?
That free people could not be arrested, put in prison, or forced to leave their nation before being judged fairly by a jury, and that they could only be judged by the laws of their own nation.
What ideas did the Constitution writers take from Magna Carta?
That citizens had the right to petition, or request, changes or improvements to the law, and the right to fair punishment for crimes.
What ideas did the Constitution writers take from The English Bill of Rights?
The idea of a bicameral lawmaking body of government (two parts/houses)
What ideas did the Constitution writers take from the British Parliamentary Government?
What is the lawmaking body of Great Britain called?
The House of Commons = House of Representatives, and the House of Lords = Senate
What are the two houses in British government, and what did they become in the US government?
So they would not be pressured by outsiders, and so they would have a chance to change their minds after debate.
Why did the delegates of the Constitutional Convention want to meet in secret?
Because he recorded all the details of the Constitutional Convention.
Why is James Madison called the Father of the Constitution?
____________ divides a government's powers between the national government, which governs the whole country, and state governments, which govern each state.
What is an agreement in which each side gives up part of its demands in order to reach a solution to a problem?
Because then larger states would have an advantage and more votes in Congress, since they would have more representatives.
Why did large states favor representation by population, but smaller states didn't?
The agreement to have two houses: the Senate, which had 2 representatives per state and satisfied the smaller states, and the House of Representatives, which had representation based on populations and satisfied the larger states.
What was the Great Compromise?
The idea of the British ________ _________ led to the idea of the president.
After the Constitutional Convention, the Constitution had to be sent to the states for ___________, or approval.
9 out of the 13.
To be put into effect, how many states had to approve the Constitution?
The Constitution and the idea of a strong central government
What did Federalists support?
Who were people who opposed the new Constitution and the federal system of government ?
Who gained more support: Federalists or Antifederalists?
Rhode Island and North Carolina
What two states did not approve the Constitution until after it went into effect?
Who was the first president of the US?
That they cannot be taken away.
What does unalienable mean?