Most common; cardiomegaly and ventricular dilation damages heart muscle resulting in lower CO and blood stagnation. Causes: chemo, alcoholism, cocaine abuse, preg, infections, thyrotoxicosis, diabetes mellitus, neuromuscular diseases, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hypersensitivity to meds. CM: appear as compensatory mechanisms fail, dyspnea, fatigue, nonproductive cough, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, dysrhythmias, angina, dizziness, activity intolerance, BP changes, tachycardia, murmurs, abnormal lung sounds, tachypnea, peripheral edema, ascites, weak pedal pulse, cool/pale extremities, poor capillary refill, hepatomegaly, jugular vein distension. Diag: echocardiogram, EKG, x-ray, heart catheterization, nuclear studies. Treat: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, digoxin (Lanoxin), beta blockers, antidysrhythmics, pacemaker, cardioversion, valve repair, heart transplant, low-fat/low-sodium diet, quit smoking, exercise, abstain alcohol.