38 terms

World History Chapter 18

Glencoe World History Chapter 18 Terms, Concepts, and People
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estate
First Estate (clergy), Second Estate (nobility), Third Estate (peasants). First and Second Estates locked out Third Estate, so Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly and vowed to make a new Constitution
bourgeoisie
Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.
sans-culottes
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages. Also known as men without breeches.
Louis XVI
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
taille
A direct tax on the French peasantry. The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.
Versailles
A palace built by Louis XIV outside of Paris; it was home to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens
faction
A conflicting group; dissenting groups
elector
individuals qualified to vote in an election
Maximilien Robespierre
the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution, the Reign of Terror.
Committee of Public Safety
Began with Georges Danton, the leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795; instigated the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
Revolutionary courts set up to prosecute internal enemies of the revolutionary republic; close to 40,000 people were killed,
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814.
nationalism
A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation.
coup d`etat
sudden overthrow of the government
Jean-Paul Marat
French Revolutionary Jacobin journalist. Who became a martyr for the radical branch of the revolution.
Girondons
This group of revolutionaries largely wanted to keep the monarchy in place, but only in the form of a limited constitutional monarchy.
Moderates
Large percentage of revolutionaries who were caught in the middle between the more radical Jacobins/sans-culottes, and Girondins.
Guillotine
The most enlightened way to execute a human being according to Maximilien Robespierre.
Meritocracy
Method of placing an individual in a leadership role based on their abilities and achievements.
Continental system
System conjured up by Napoleon, which sought to cut off trade from the European mainland to Britain.
Bastille
The storming of this prison, is generally known to be the starting point for the revolutionary period in France.
Josephine
First wife of Napoleon, who was instrumental in Napoleons rise through the ranks of the Revolutionary party in France.
Marie Louise
Second Wife of Napoleon, bore Napoleon his heir. And whos marriage was a symbol of peace between the French and the Austrians.
Duke of Wellington
Brilliant British General, who was responsible for France's difficulties during the Peninsular Wars, as well as for Napoleons final defeat at Waterloo.
Horatio Nelson
Widely considered as one of the greatest Admirals in world history. Was responsible for defeating Napoleons navy several times, forcing Napoleon to only focus on the mainland of Europe.
Battle of Waterloo 1815
Famous battle that took place in June 1815 in Belgium. The Battle was a contest between the military brilliance of the Duke of Wellington, and the French Emperor Napoleon. In the end the Duke was victorious and handed Napoleon his final defeat.
Russian Invasion
One of the largest military blunders in history. Emperor Napoleon marched over 600,000 French troops deep into Russia. At the end of the unsuccessful invasion, only 20,000 troops remained. Most died due to starvation, illness, or cold weather related injuries.
Battle of the Nile
Naval engagement between the British and French Navies in Egypt. Which resulted in the end of French overseas campaigns.
Battle of Trafalgar
Naval engagement between the British and French Navies off the coast of Spain. During the Battle not a single British ship was destroyed, and the British gained a grand victory against the Franco-Spanish navy. The Victory agian proved France could not compete in the open seas with the British.
Georges Danton
French revolutionary, who was the first leader of the commitee of public safety. But who grew more moderate in his stances of the revolution. And slowly grew away from the radical groups of the revolution. As a result he was considered a traitor to the cause, and executed for his offenses.
Directory
French revolutionary government which ruled in place of the monarchy from 1795-1799. Before it was replaced by Napoleon.
Napoleon Crowns himself Emperor
Storming of the Bastille
Death of King Louie XVI
Women march on Versaille
Death of Marat