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Humors to Hysteria Exam 2 Terms
Terms in this set (58)
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) Pope divides newly discovered world between Spain and Portugal to stop their squabbling. Pope created a line of demarcation and Spain was given rights to all newly discovered and undiscovered lands in region west of line and Portugal was given rights to east of line (including China). Pope was allowed to do this because of the goal of spreading Catholicism.
(1600s) Chinese scholar (bureaucrat, scientist, mathematician). Collaborates with Italian Matteo Ricci to translate Euclid's Elements into Chinese, introducing China to geometry. After they predict the solar eclipse, the Emperor asks them to redo calendar mathematically/lunar (big deal - political ramifications) Converts to Catholicism - proof of Ricci's success/credit
foundational Confucian text that Matteo Ricci translates into Latin (Europe's religious language) Representative of circulation of knowledge of 1600s - translating Chinese knowledge to Europeans, not just Europe to China but in both directions
True Record of the Lord of Heaven
makes Matteo Ricci's case for Catholicism. He circulates it to Chinese friends first. Proves heaven and hell through Confucian texts. Uses word "Tienchu" instead of "God". Chinese value moral self-improvement and Catholicism is seen as self-cultivation. Common touchstone of both religions is natural law. Dialogue between Western and Chinese scholars (as opposed to strict translation of Catechism). Ricci wins converts through this publication (widely read and accepted).
used by Jean de Brebeuf with the Huron Indians in New France. Involves combining conceptually different spiritual traditions to win converts. Ex: Song "Huron Carol" written about nativity in Huron language for their flute - gifts are fox and beaver pelt, hunters instead of wisemen. Syncretism blends two ideas, tries to fit Catholicism into model of Huron's religion
(beginning in 1611) 200 years of correspondence, letters of Jesuit missionaries communicating back to Europe. (Brebeuf contributed) Annual reports began to be published, "rapport" - report and relationship developed with Indians. Describes cabins, villages, laws, character of Indians, and rituals (including Feast of the Dead) These acted as a guide for European readers.
Feast of the Dead (1636) - Huron ceremony ever 12 years to bury dead in one huge grave. Elaborate ritual. Jean de Brebeuf points to Huron belief in afterlife - they take such good care of the dead bodies that it must be important for the soul. They might be concerned with salvation
possible connection to Christianity
17th century Italian physicist, dissects humans and animals. Studies properties of human flesh. Dissects a black corpse. Believes black pigment is from a layer of mucus under the skin. His is one of many attempts of Europeans to classify/explain cause of blackness through observation.
describes Native American - man in state of nature (close to and master of nature). Holds what Europeans admire without the vices from society. Potentially pure and uncorrupted by authority/king. Makes Europeans question themselves (their nobility comes from not being civilized, blissful ignorance)
Louis Antoine de Bougainville
circumnavigates world (1766-) leaves France with a few hundred men, including scientists. Compiles observations into A Voyage around the World, describes biology, geology, anthropology. Describes Tahitian society as a sort of earthly paradise of blissful ignorance not corrupted by civilization. Tahitians live in state of nature in rough climate deprived of civilized convencience - noble savages as a result.
(1721) by Montesquieu - work of fiction about 2 Persian nobles traveling through France, composed of letters between characters and contacts. Comments on Western/Christian society. Biting satire on French political system. Use of "other" to make French the exotic ones/outsiders themselves. Characters don't understand why their religions aren't tolerated - they are the ones that seem more enlightened
Theory of Polygenism
multiple coming into being. Bucks Adam and Eve as being single parents of human race. Idea of multiple parents being heads of different species/hierarchies. This implied that racial differences were not just changes that occurred over time from different climates but were actually different from the beginning (more firmly separates races)
(voyage 1768 - 1771) British explorer and cartographer, created detailed and precise maps. Traveled to pacific and observed transit of Venus across sun. Reached Tahiti (Tahitians helped him with maps) and then Australia. Has many scientists with him - great collection of knowledge.
In Buffon's Natural History, he attempted to describe all known species in mineral and animal kingdom. Buffon's Law marked beginning of biogeography. Different regions of the world have different/distinct plants and animals. Species have been improved and degenerated after being separated from center/original. Transformist ideas - species mutate. New World is inferior to Eurasia in terms of its creatures and humans because of its marsh climate.
(1775) describes 4 stem races from which all other races are mixed from. Differences are all derived from 4 main races (Whites, Negro, Hunnic, Hindustanic) Air and sun create most lasting impact (bodily changes from climate develop over time)
Diderot's Encyclopedia (1751
1762)- Goal: to collect all knowledge based on reason known to man and make it as widespread as possible. Knowledge should/would be free from privilege, would allow descendants to have this knowledge. Tens of thousands of entries from 80 different contributors all around Europe. Included 11 volumes of illustrations for those who can't read so everyone has the same image of something - observation based learning.
Philosophes - Public intellectuals who participated in Enlightenment, engaged in wider discussion. Many were involved in Republic of Letters
Public intellectuals who participated in Enlightenment, engaged in wider discussion. Many were involved in Republic of Letters- passing around of letters and books internationally with intellectual purpose. Interconnected dialogue.
Poullain de la Barre
if Descartes' mind-body dualism is true, then maybe male and female minds are the same "Reason has no sex" if body/mind are so different
Albretch Von Haller
Swiss physiologist in the 1740s. Proposed materialist notion that fibers were the basic unit of all properties. The body is fully made of fibers that vibrate. Everything is physical. He dissects animals to understand fiber.
Doctor/philosopher in mid 1700s who opposed dualism. Believed strongly in materialism. Wrote Natural History of the Soul - soul of material world only. Strong proponent of medical reform. Medicine should be useful and people not just intellectuals should have medical knowledge.
Involved in battle between doctors and surgeons. Doctors have education and ancient medical knowledge, but surgeons have practice/experiential observations. Mettrie satirizes doctors because they are not hands on, says they are self seeking social climbers.
Machine Bodies- body functions as hydraulic machine. Bodies are govrned by mechanical laws. Mind is mechanical - filters bring impressions, make rational thought. All knowledge from senses, fibers give us intellectual capacity. Thinking is physically exhaustive
Sensibility (2 Types)
Sensibility is how you see/react and how attuned you are to world around you
Physiological - rooted in 5 senses, form ideas, how you know world around you, how climate affects you, how body reacts to external stimuli
Moral- Disposition of soul which makes it easily touched and moved. Greater the moral sense, the more strongly you're influenced by passions. Emotional sensitivity- pity. Allows rationality because mindful of outside world.
Outside impressions trigger both sensitivities
Republic of Letters
correspondence between Enlightenment intellectuals across Europe. Open dialogue to discuss international ideas.
famous Parisian salonierre (1749- 1776). Salonierres moderated and governed conversation because their gendered strengths allowed them to create harmony in dialogue.
Studies for 20 years in another woman's salon. Salon allows her to be in company of intellectuals because she was formally educated.
(Bach) Baroque style with counterpoint. Included a lot of different ornate harmonies/instruments. Very focused on technicalities. Now unified or clear melody, can't hum to it. Showed off skill of musicians not melody. Conversation between instruments but not talking to each other. Melody - split personality - like civility (polite but not cooperative)
Usually performed for smaller private audience/wealthy patron
unified melody that all instruments support. Can be hummed. Purpose is to evoke emotion rather than show off talent. Not competition between instruments, but conversing, collectively supporting the melody (like salons)
(1735) writes opera ballet with acts set in exotic locations.
Les Sauvages - Native Americans defeated in battle, NA warrior along with European soldiers love woman, she chooses NA - the most natural. Critique of European seduction of women through falsehoods
Rameau called Newton of Harmony - scientifically studies how to create harmony.
Idea of Sonorous Body, physics of music
Jean Philippe Rameau- hits metal, separates twang out into pitches. Uses pitches to create chords to support melody in most natural way. Vibrations of sonorous bodies create sound = resonating partials. Sounds create emotional response in physical body that receives the music
Austrian musician, part of free masons. His symphonies have moral qualities. He gathers info about audiences - the physical body that receives the music. Different bodies respond to different music (need to understand cultures, climates) He observes audience reaction and applies these reactions to the creation of music. Paris Symphonies - clear melody, not overly complicated, could be played by amateurs
private egalitarian group- met out of mutual interest (as individuals, not because part of any social group) . Free Masons believed only educated could improve society so they wanted to spread enlightenment ideas to improve society. Interested in Music
Free Mason lodge in Paris. Loges were big clubs (could be a few hundred men) Held open air concert series. Payed Haydyn to create symphonies for concerts. Created an orchestra by mixing amateur and pro musicians. Small entrance fee for concerts but was open to public (spreading music composed for public with public in mind)
1651 (Thomas Hobbes work)
Society needs an absolute ruler (not DRM) with supreme power like God. All people give up all rights and power to the ruler in contract - no basis for rebellion. Contract can't be changed once its made.
Ruler's power comes from below (the people) not above (God) because no one can truly know God's wishes
(1688) After civil war and restoration, Catholic James II becomes king. Parliament decides instead to choose their own King & Queen. By act of Parliament, crown is passed onto King WIlliam and Mary. (consent from below, not DRM). Parliament gives limited power to king - king needs agreement from Parliament to perform many actions
Two Treatises of Goverment
John Locke's work written/published around time of Glorious Revolution (1680s)
Influences Constitutional Monarchy
Every person (not just ancient) is born in state of nature. Each person is a blank slate (tabula rasa), then experiences things. Everyone has access to natural law. Uncertain peace before government
Property- private property distinguished by mans bodily labor. God gave world to man so you can take possession of it by making it useful.
Government - men need judge so conflict doesnt rupture social bonds, need for limited government, can find divine direction on earth
Contract - Men must alienate our rights by our own freedom/consent. Only individual can remove himself from state of nature- can't be imposed on him. Rebellion is allowed.
Discourse on the Origins of Inequality
1754) Rousseau's work that builds on notion that society is corrupting people. Man in state of nature is full of pity and empathy, not overly selfish. His goal is to preserve himself. Only inequality in state of nature is phsyical. In nature, man is indepent, no moral system but sociable, physical inequality. In society, liberty is lost, there is corruption /hierarchy, Social and Political inequality
Society leads to dissimulation (pushing us backwards, not progress)
Rousseau's idea. Moral force inherent in group of people. Common Good. It is beyond personal interest so it is not just majority. Subject to general will even if its gainst private desires because it is best for all. General will is indivisible and can't be fractured- it is the collective will of whole society. Different societies have different general wills. In utopia, everyone consents to common will
If one doesn't want general will, they're forced to be free
Tax on land that pesants had to pay but the French crown was not effective at collecting them and bringing them back to treasury. Nobles didn't have to pay land tax but they owned most of the land
A company of tax collectors or "farmers". Crown has to pay those who do the collecting. But collectors often took of the money. Not very helpful in lessening the debt
Cahier de doleances
King Louis XVI amidst declaring bankruptcy and calling the Estates General orders every village to draw up a petition of grievances. State what they think is wrong and what should change.
Opens the door to people thinking that they have some political power, great amount of discussion ensues
What is the Third Estate?
Sieye's writing 1789
What is the third estate?
What has it been in politics?
What does it want?
- to become something
Third Estate IS the nation because it does useful work. Nobles and Clergy are liches that could not exist on their own. Parasites on the life-giving body of the third estate
Tennis Court Oath
In June 1789, the National Assembly is locked out of their meeting place (intentionally?) Meet on the Tennis Court instead.
They take an oath not to disband until they have written a constitution to change the government
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
August 1789 (after entire feudal system is abolished) Echos of social contract theorem. It is a foundational act that will orient future constitution. Protects people's rights not privileges. Does not preserve DRM or social hierarchy. Principle of all sovereignty resides in the nation (not king, God, estates). No corporate priviliges - each body, each person. Big Step for revolutionary France
In France, high treason used to be crime against the king (lese-majeste). In revolutionary France, it is now a crime against the nation (lese-nation)
Represents shift in location of sovereignty
(1789) Huge bread shortage. People think aristocrats are hoarding it.
King wants absolute veto, NA wants to give him suspensive veto (can be bypassed)
Supposed Orgy and Counterrevolutionary activity at Versailles
News of orgies get back to Paris. 6000 people decide to march to Versailles to talk to king (12 miles in rain, hungry, woman faints at feet of king)
Someone leaves door open to palace gate. Shots are fired, chaos ensues.
Louis appears and promises to return to Paris (where NA is)- heart of popular politics - ALL government now in Paris
in June 1791, Louis decides to run away to escape Revolution. He is recognized by customs agency in Varennes. Crowd of thousands from surrounding area bring king back to Paris. He tried to abandon the nation.
Post Varennes - the mask is raised, further and further movement from DRM
Much anti-king propaganda
Revolutionary political group in Paris. They discuss politics, start to discuss possibility of republic after king's flight.
Get different regions in France to establish their own Jacobin clubs. Want to spread revolution outside of France too.
Many in club are deputies in Assembly and plan voting strategy
lawyer in Jacobin club, committed to revolution undyingly. Very radical ideas: Emancipation of Jews and slaves.
Opposes property qualification to vote
He is embodiment of Revolution
group becomes known for their clothing
included Parisian radical revolutionaries
Idea that the common person is admirable
(aristocrats fancy clothing looked down upon)
Joseph Ignace Guillotin
inventor of Guillotin device for equality in death
Guillotine is a scientific machine to kill (reflects enlightenment principles of equality)
1) same offense -> same punishment (no social distinction)
2) Punishment will be simple efficient mechanism (no torture)
3) Punishment wouldnt bring discrimination upon family (
August 10, 1792
throughout spring/summer of 1792 king is not making case for being kept. Keeps vetoing NA decrees. In early August, France begins to be invaded by Austria and Prussia.
On August 10, 1792 20,000 sans culotte and national guardsmen attack palace. King has to flee, is placed under arrest
Huge figure of idealized good woman of Revolution
Common peasant woman name
Glorified most common of common
Revolutionaries didn't want one male figure so women were more commonly allegorized
Mothers were to raise moral patriotic children
Priest in Saint Domingue
When slaves start to hear things from france about freedom, ideas are sparked.
Religious component brings unity to slaves.
Boukmann rallies slaves for revolt
Gives inspirational talk based on religious rituals
freed slave, comes to be known as "Black Napoleon"
Inspired by French revolutionary ideology
rose to become the leader of the only successful slave revolt in modern history that created an independent state, the Haitian Revolution.
Sent by French to restore order in Saint Domingue and to fight Spain and England (who got involved in revolt to take France's land)
Sonthonax tells slaves that anyone who will fight against Spain and France will get freedom.
Makes deicision to abolish slavery because French troops are too small. Does so without permission of NA
Slavery abolished everywhere in 1794 as a result
Fighting in colony of Saint Domingue for many years. In 1802, Napoleon tries to reestablish slavery but loses. Toussaint is captured but people of Saint Domingue defeat Napoleon and get independence (nation of Haiti established in 1804)
French Revolutionary Calendar
Post-revolution, Franch wants to remove Church and royal influence from calendar so they reinvent the calendar used from 1793-1805
Months are represented by all women allegorical figures
Year 1 is the founding of French Republic
Month names no longer represented by greek gods but on weather/climate/nature
Festivals celebrate revolutionary ideas instead of Catholic festivals
Post-revolution, French create decimal system. Now 10 days per week (decade) Each month is 3 weeks of ten days.
Causes problems because people only get a day off every 10 days.
Vendee is region in France where Civil War occurs (1793-1796) post Revolution
Vendee region is a royalist and very Catholic pocket that does not like revolution
Civil War is led by royalist nobles who recruit peasants and wage guerilla warfare against army
motto is "God the King"
Very bloody period
Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
Massive attempt to suppress counterrevolutionaries
Power is given to small groups - Rise in factionism
Characterized by mood of huge fear and paranoia as a result of internal war, getting invaded, limited resources, skyrocketing prices, etc.
Assembly declares state of emergency and gives power to Committee of Public Safety (led by Robespierre), charged with bringing order to nation
Use guillotine to punish suspected counterrevolutionaries (tens of thousands executed)
Politically purging people but paranoia spirals out of control
eventually ended when committee is overthrown because people worry they might be next9`
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