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Terms in this set (17)
Cholelithiasis (most common disorder in US)
Made up of cholesterol mainly, but can be made up of other items: calcium, etc.
Formation or presence of stones in the gallbladder
Cholelithiasis (most common disorder in US)
Etiology & Pathophysiology
Cause is unknown
Females, multiparous, overweight
Other: over age 40, sedentary lifestyle, family tendencies (genetic), high fat diet, alcoholism, estrogen therapy
Cholelithiasis: Clinical Manifestation
When stones start to move that is when the pain starts.
Severe symptoms or "silent cholelithiasis"
Biliary colic (pain/discomfort)
Severe excruciating pain
Blockage of flow of bile from the liver to the intestine
Bile is yellow green fluid, produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
Eating=gallbladder contracts and empties bile into the small intestine
What triggers these symptoms?
High fat meal, heavy meal, laying down directly after eating
What would be a sign of a blockage?
Steatorrhea, dark amber urine, constipation, jaundice, clay colored stools, pruritus (itchy)
WBC count elevated (leukocytosis) normal is 5-10K , liver function studies (enzymes could be high), serum bilirubin (enzymes could be high)
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography - insertion of needle directly into gallbladder duct followed by injection of contrast materials.
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) - tube down throat, uses and endoscope passed to duodenum to visualize the gallbladder and ducts through the scope, can also widen the sphincter of Oddi. (Can snag the stone with basket or if not reached the stone will be passed later on
Treatment depends on gallstones and stage of disease. Bile acids(cholesterol solvents) can dissolve acids, stones usually not treated with medication
Nonsurgical removal of stones
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) with sphincterotomy - widening of sphincter (more stones can form later)
After care: Monitor patient for HYPOVOLEMIA - low blood volume, check gag reflex (did they have one before?), check vital signs, may be nauseated - antiemetic, esophagus may get perforated.
ESWL (extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy) used when stones are too large to pass. Shockwaves used to dissolve the stone, not used very often though. Used in conjunction with meds to assist with dissolving of stones
Treatment of choice for symptomatic cholelithiasis is surgical removal of gallbladder
Depends on type of surgery.
Teach about Hypostatic pneumonia (cough and deep breath) - secretions stay in one spot, don't move.
Importance of moving and turning
If laproscoptic surgery: key holes in abd, explain how pain will be dealt with.
Monitor dressings, pain level, vital signs
*main complication is injury to the common bile duct
Monitor any tubes (T-tube or transhepatic biliary catheter): relieves an obstruction
-bile drains into the bag, may stay in a week or a couple weeks.
-Why? Biliary obstruction is a common problem
What are the common foods intolerances for clients with cholelithiasis?
-fried, spicy foods
Acute inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholecystitis:Etiology & Pathophysiology
Usually caused by obstruction from gallstones
Older adults, trauma victims, burns, DM, bacteria: E. coli. Recent surgery
Gangrenous cholecystitis -inflamed, edematous, filled with pus
Bile peritonitis - rupture
Older patients and DM most at risk for these complications
Pain & tenderness RUQ
Referred pain to right shoulder/scapula
ABD firm, rigid
Heartburn with chronic cholecystitis
Flatulence with chronic cholecystitis
Cholecystitis Collaborative Care
Control of pain
Control of possible infection - ATB to Tx or prevent
Maintain fluid & electrolyte balance
NG tube/gastric decompression for severe N/V (helps to prevent further gallbladder stimulation) NPO
Nostril care if they have an NG tube
Cholecystitis Nursing Management
Supportive treatment of symptoms
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (Lap chole) - key hole surgery. 90% of all chole's are laproscopic.
Incisional (open) Cholecystectomy (if unable to be removed laparoscopic)
Greater risk of infection
*Morphine is believed to cause biliary spasms. Demerol is preferred analgesic. Elder should not be given Demerol risk of acute confusion and sezuires
-Teach about incentive spirometer
-Few activity restrictions
-May shower the day after
-May have shoulder pain - Due to CO2 migrating and irritating phrenic nerve and diaphragm and leading to shoulder pain. Moving around, pain meds, and lying in Sims position will help.
Incisional (open) Cholecystectomy
-teach incentive spirometer
-what to expect with incision: cleaning, cleaning, etc.
-hospital stay: 2-3 days
-No heavy lifting for 4-6 weeks
-liquid to bland diet AFTER the return of bowel sounds
-restrict fat in diet for a while.
-TCDB at least every 2 hours
-smokers have an increased with pneumonia, atelectasis.
*bile color should be gold to dark green