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Terms in this set (47)
What are rocks made of?
Rocks are made up minerals or mineral-like solid substances.
What are the 3 types of rock and how is each formed?
The three types of rocks are metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary. Metamorphic rocks form when rocks are altered by heat. Igneous rocks are formed when magma hardens. Sedimentary rocks form when sediments are compacted together to become one.
Where does the energy that drives the Earth's rock cycle come from?
Geothermal heat forms Earth's core and solar energy from the sun drive the rock cycle.
What are the steps of the rock cycle?
Loose sediment compacts together to form sedimentary rocks. These rocks are forced downwards through Earth's surface by other rocks. The sedimentary rock experiences so much rocks from preceding rocks that they transform into metamorphic rocks. These metamorphic rocks are melted to the liquid form of magma. The magma is cooled to form igneous. The igneous rocks are eroded by Earth's forces into sediments.
Which type of rock forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface?
Igneous rocks form when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface.
What is an extrusive igneous rock and give an example.
Extrusive igneous rocks are rocks formed when lava, magma on the surface, hardens.
What type texture is formed when lava cools rapidly, not allowing time for crystals to arrange themselves?
A porphyritic texture is formed when lava cools rapidly.
How does a conglomerate form?
A conglomerate forms when large pebbles and other sediments are compacted.
Describe the following igneous rock compositions: granitic, basaltic, andesitic, and ultramafic.
Granite- Igneous rocks with a composition mostly of the light-colored silicate minerals quarts and feldspar.
Basaltic- Rocks that contain dark silicates and plagioclase feldspar.
Andesitic- The midpoint between granitic and basaltic compositions.
Ultramafic- Rocks composed almost entirely of dark silicate.
What steps lead to the formation of sedimentary rock?
Sedimentary rock forms when loose sediments compact together to form a larger mass of sediments.
What is breccia?
Breccia is a sedimentary rock that forms when the sediment it contains are angular.
What type of rock is limestone an example of?
Limestone is an example of a chemical sedimentary rock.
In which type of rock would you find fossils?
You would find fossils in sedimentary rocks.
What do ripples in sedimentary rocks suggest?
Ripples in sedimentary rock suggest that the rocks were subdued to water.
Where do most metamorphic processes take place?
Most metamorphic changes occur at elevated temperatures and pressure below Earth's surface and into the upper mantle.
What rock-forming process occurs when hot magma forces its way into rock?
What are the 3 agents of metamorphism and what kind of changes does each cause?
The agents of metamorphism are heat, pressure, and hydrothermal solutions.
How is a foliated metamorphic rock formed?
When minerals recrystallize with the preferred orientation which is at right angles to the direction of the force resulting in a layered or banded appearance to the rock.
How are metamorphic rocks classified?
Metamorphic rocks are classified by texture and composition. Texture can be foliated or nonfoliated.
A consolidated mixture of minerals
a model that illustrates the origin of the three basic rock types and the interrelatedness of earth materials and processes
loose particles created by the weathering and erosion of rocks by chemical precipitation from solution in water or from the secretions of organisms and transported by water, wind, or glaciers
Rock formed when loose sediments are compacted together.
a body of molten rock found in depth including any dissolved gases or crystals
Rock formed by alteration of preexisting rock within earth by heat, pressure, or fluids
a rock formed by the crystallization of molten magma
Magma that reaches earth's surface
The interrogation of rock at or near earths surface
Rocks that form when magma hardens beneath earth's surface
Intrusive Igneous Rock
When lava hardens on earth's surface
Extrusive Igneous Rock
a compositional group of igneous rocks that indicate a rock is composed almost entirely of light-colored silicates
a compositional group of igneous rocks indicating that the rock contains substantial dark-silicate minerals
The compositional igneous rocks lying between felsic and mafic
Igneous rock composed mainly of iron and magnesium rich minerals
An igneous texture consisting of large crystals embedded in a matrix of much smaller crystals.
Solidification of sediments by the definition of dissolved minerals in the tiny spaces between the sedimentary particles
Sedimentary rock consisting of material that precipitated from water by either inorganic or organic means
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
A sedimentary rock made of broken fragments of preexisting rock
Clastic Sedimentary Rock
Process by which sediments are squeezed together by the weight of overlying materials driving out water
The action in the rock cycle in which sediments are dropped
The transportation of materials by a mobile agent such as wind, water, or ice
Changes in rock caused by the heat from a nearby magma body
A metamorphic rock that has a texture that gives the rock a layered appearance
Foliated Metamorphic Rock
the hot watery solution that escapes from a mass of magma during the later stages of crystallization
The changes in mineral composition and texture of a rock subjected to high temperature and pressure within earth
Metamorphic rock that does not exhibit a banded or layered appearance
Metamorphism associated with large scale mountain building proccesses
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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