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AP Euro 2013

Background to the Scientific Revolution

-Renaissance artists made an impact of scientific study by their accurate depictions of rocks, plants, animals, and human anatomy
-Technical problems, such as weighing ships, stimulated scientific activity because it forced careful observations and accurate measurements
-Mathematics was re-promoted during the Renaissance due to the study of ancient mathematicians
-Hermetic magic played a large role; people wanted to control and dominate the natural world

Ptolemaic Universe

-Universe was seen as a series of concentric spheres with a motionless earth at the center
-Spheres were composed of heavenly bodies which moved the spheres
-Eight spheres contained the moon, mercury, Venus, the sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the fixed stars
-Ninth sphere passed on to the eighth the fixed stars in its motion
-Tenth sphere described as the prime mover which moved itself as well as other spheres

Growing Discontent with the Ptolemaic System

-His concept of the universe did not satisfy professional astronomers because they wanted to find the exact paths of the heavenly bodies through the sky


-An accomplished observational astronomer
-Realized the Ptolemy's model was inaccurate
-He believed in a heliocentric conception of the universe


Sun-centered conception

On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

-Book written by Copernicus
-He didn't publish it at first because he feared ridicule from his fellow astronomers


Sun-centered conception


-Built the Uraniborg castle where he studied astronomy
-He assembled a detailed record of his observations on the positions and movements of the stars and planets


-He used Brahe's data to formulate three laws of planetary motion which confirmed Copernicus's theory
-The first law rejected Copernicus by showing that the orbits around the sun were elliptical, not circular, with the sun at one focus of the ellipse
-The third law established that planets with larger orbits revolve at slower average velocity than those with smaller orbits
-His discoveries destroyed the idea that the motion of the planets was steady and unchanging


-Created the telescope which he used to make structured observations of the heavens
-Made large discoveries in the orientation of the universe
-In the problem of motion, he demonstrated that if a uniform force was applied to an object, it would move at an accelerated, not constant, speed
-He discovered the principle of inertia when he argued that a body in motion continues in motion forever unless stopped by an internal force

Galileo's Discoveries

-Mountains and craters on the moon
-Four moons revolving around Jupiter
-The phases of Venus, and sunspots
-His observations made clear the fact that the universe seemed to be composed of material substance similar to that on earth

The Starry Messenger

-Published by Galileo
-It had all of his observations in it
-Made people aware of the changing picture of the universe
-Revealed himself as an advocate of Copernicus's heliocentric system

Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems

-Galileo wrote in Italian which made it more accessible to the public
-The book was a conversation between Simplicio, an stupid supporter of Aristotle and Ptolemy, Sagredo, an open minded layman, and Salviati, an advocate for Copernicus's ideas
-It was very clear who won
-After writing it, he was found guilty of teaching the Copernican system, and he was placed under house arrest

Roman Inquisition

-Condemned Copernicanism and ordered Galileo to reject it as well
They didn't like the ideas that: Heavens were no longer a spiritual world but a world of matter, humans were no longer at the center, god wasn't in a specific place
-Their condemnation of Galileo sabotaged further scientific work in Italy which, at the time, had been on the brink of scientific innovation

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