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Anatomy Chapter 6: Skeletal

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Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?
epiphyseal plate
Bones are classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function.
False
Osteomyelitis is ________.
due to pus-forming bacteria
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?
osteoclast
What tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification?
cartilage
Paranasal sinuses are found in which of these facial bones?
maxillae
The axial skeleton includes the ________.
ribs
Which of the following is UNLIKELY to affect bone remodeling?
glucagon
The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is ________.
hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling
What is endochondral ossification?
the formation of bone from pre-existing hyaline cartilage models
In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?
elevated levels of sex hormones
What controls bone remodeling?
mechanical stress and hormones
During late pregnancy, women may exhibit temporary lordosis. This is advantageous because temporary lordosis _________.
makes it easier for a woman to maintain her balance
There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.
True
When should prevention of osteoporosis start?
The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children while bones are still growing. Children should increase their bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis in the future.
Bones do NOT have a role in ________.
glycogen production
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
compact bone
Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light.
False
How can a tooth be moved in a bony socket during orthodontic treatment?
By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reabsorb, while the bone on the reverse side will be reformed.
Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?
Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.
Which bone serves as an enclosure for the pituitary gland?
sphenoid bone
The vomer forms part of the nasal septum.
True
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.
by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
Hyaline cartilage ________.
is found on the ends of bones that form movable joints
Mrs. Mulligan goes to her dentist and, after having a couple of cavities filled, her dentist strongly suggests that she reduce her intake of sodas and increase her intake of calcium phosphates in the foods she eats. Why?
Sodas are strong acids that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.
Hypercalcemia can be caused by_________.
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone
Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?
compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin
Which of the following is stored in bones?
phosphate
Osteoclasts ________.
break down bone
Which bone cells form bone?
osteoblasts
In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow.
False
All bones stop growing by the end of adolescence.
False
The main role of the appendicular skeleton is to protect and support vital organs.
False
The ________ is the only bone in the body that does not directly articulate with any other bone.
hyoid bone
Choose the TRUE statement.
Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).
The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.
False
The structural unit of spongy is called ________.
trabeculae
Alice and James adopted a 3-year-old child from a developing country. They noticed that her legs were bowed and there were some deformities in her cranial and pelvic bones. They brought her to a physician for a diagnosis. What was the diagnosis, and what was the treatment for the disorder?
The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.
Osteogenesis is the process of ________.
bone formation
Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?
osteocalcin
Which of the following is a bone projection?
trochanter
Which bone acts as a moveable base for the tongue?
hyoid bone
Which description of bone cells is INCORRECT?
Osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts.
The hormone that is primarily involved in the control of bone remodeling is the parathyroid hormone.
True
The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.
appositional growth
Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?
growth hormone
What type of bone is the patella?
sesamoid bone
Which of the following refers to a bone disorder found most often in the aged and resulting in the bones becoming porous and light?
osteoporosis
When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called ________.
interstitial growth
Wolff's law is concerned with ________.
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
Which type of cartilage covers and protects the ends of bones at freely moveable joints?
hyaline cartilage
In adults, yellow marrow is located ________.
in the medullary cavity of long bones
Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?
the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
Which of the following is the normal curve often seen in pregnant women as they attempt to preserve their center of gravity toward the end of the pregnancy?
lordosis
What is the joint formed by the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone?
temporomandibular joint
The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.
True
Osteocytes are connected to each other through which structure?
caniculi
What is absolutely required for bone growth or healing from a fracture?
osteoblasts
What makes up the axial skeleton?
the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is of greatest importance for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
growth hormone
Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.
False
The notable hardness of bone is attributed to ________.
the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites
The dens articulates with the axis.
False
Which of the following bones is a part of the appendicular skeleton?
humerus
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.
blood vessels and nerve fibers
For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?
An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.
A cleft palate arises when the right and left _____________ bones fail to fuse medially during fetal development.
maxillae
The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones.
True
What indicates that a long bone has reached its adult length?
closure of the epiphyseal plate
Choose the FALSE statement.
Long bones include all limb bones except the patella.
The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?
sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
The osteon is ________.
the structural unit of compact bone
Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone.
False
Which of the following bones are part of the axial skeleton?
bones that form the facial skeleton
Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite.
True
The term diploë refers to the ________.
internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
Choose the CORRECT pairing.
paget's disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?
parathyroid hormone
Which of the following phrases best describes the function of the vertebral curves?
to provide resilience and flexibility
The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________.
sagittal
Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.
True
Why, or why not, is swimming recommended as an exercise to prevent osteoporosis?
Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is not considered a weight-bearing exercise.
Mastoiditis is most likely to result from an infection spreading from the throat.
True
Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes.
True
The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk.
True
Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.
True
Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.
is produced by secondary ossification centers
The pituitary gland is housed in the ________.
sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
Hematopoiesis is a term for which of the following physiological processes?
blood cell formation
Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses?
Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull.
Which of the following is not a movement that can occur between vertebrae?
supination
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
the osteon
Lordosis only occurs in pregnant women.
False
A Pott's fracture could result in damage to all of the following except ____________.
tibial condyle
What is the final stage in the healing of a bone fracture?
bone remodeling
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.
fat
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
The hyoid bone is unique because it ________.
is the only bone of the body that does not articulate with any other bone
Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.
interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
hyaline cartilage
Men and women have the same number of ribs.
True
The frontal bone articulates with the parietal bone by means of the sagittal suture.
False
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
osteon
The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are called ________.
fontanelles
Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region?
scoliosis
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?
thyroid
What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.
diaphysis
After having a severe cold accompanied by nasal congestion, Jamila complained that she had a headache just above her eyes and that the right side of her face ached. What specific bony structures probably became infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the cold?
The frontal sinus located in the frontal bone, and the right maxillary sinus located in the right maxilla
Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone?
ramus
Flat bones consist of compact bone sandwiched between spongy bone.
False
What is osteoid?
the organic part of the matrix of bone
Cranial bones develop ________.
within fibrous membranes
What causes osteoporosis?
Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.
Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?
communication
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.
osteoblast
What is the major function of the axial skeleton?
provide central support for the body and protect internal organs
During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is ________.
growth hormone
The epiphyseal plate is ________.
where long bone lengthening occurs
In adults, hematopoietic tissue is NOT found in ________.
the medullary cavity of long bones
An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.
True