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30 terms

AP Government Chapter 3 Key Terms

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Federal System
system where the national and state governments share power and derive all authority from the people
Confederation
national government gets power from states
Unitary System
local and regional government get power from strong national government
Enumerated Powers
exclusive powers of national government; like: coin money, conduct foreign relations, provide for army, etc.
Implied Powers
powers given by enumerated powers and necessary and proper clause
10th Amendment
states that all powers not set up for the national government, or restricted by the state, are left as powers of the states
Reserved Powers
what the states' powers are called; include ability to legislate for public health, safety and morals of citizens
Bill of Attainder
a law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial
Full Faith and Credit Clause
ensures that judicial degrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in another
Privileges and Immunities Clause
guaranteeing citizens of each state have same rights as citizens of all other states
Municipalities
city governments created in response to the emergence of a relatively dense populated area
Town
small communities, often run by a mayor and town council
Special District
local government restricted to a particular function; exists for services like libraries, sewage, water, and parks; ex: school districts
Extradition Clause
requires states to extradite, or return, criminals to states where they have been convicted or due to stand trial
Interstate Compacts
contracts between states that carry the force of law
Dillon's Rule
all local government do not have any inherent sovereignty and instead must be authorized by state gov
Charter
specifies basic policies, procedures, and institution that are acceptable to the state leg.
Counties
basic administrative unit of local gov; used for welfare and environmental programs, courts, and registration of land, births, deaths
Nullification
right of a state to declare a federal law void
16th Amendment
gave Congress power to levy and collect taxes on incomes without apportioning them among the states; income tax; greatly increased national power
17th Amendment
terminated state legislatures' election of senators and placed election in hands of the people
New Deal
collective innovative programs and brought new era of American politics; cooperative federalism
Categorical Grant
Grants where Congress gives funds for specific purposes; subject to detailed conditions by the national gov
New Federalism
Reagan term; federal - state relationship with return of power to states = DEVOLUTION
Block Grant
large amounts of money given to states with only general spending guidelines; mostly requests to revamp welfare system
Unfunded Mandate
A federal mandate given to the states that is not funded by the national government
Programmatic Requests
federal funds designated for special projects within state or congressional district that direct specific exemptions from taxes or mandated fees
Rehnquist Court
supreme court that was greatly for states rights; Sandra Day O'Connor
Preemption
allows national government to override state or local actions in certain areas
Progressive Federalism
The type of federalism we have today; incorporates both coercive and cooperative